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COMICS

Comics is a medium used to express ideas via images, often combined with text or other visual information. Comics frequently takes the form of juxtaposed sequences of panels of images. Often textual devices such as speech balloons, captions, and onomatopoeia indicate dialogue, narration, sound effects, or other information. Size and arrangement of panels contribute to narrative pacing. Cartooning and similar forms of illustration are the most common image-making means in comics; fumetti is a form which uses photographic images. Common forms of comics include comic strips, editorial and gag cartoons, and comic books. Since the late 20th century, bound volumes such as graphic novels, comics albums, and tankōbon have become increasingly common, and online webcomics have proliferated in the 21st century.
Comics has had a lowbrow reputation for much of its history, but towards the end of the 20th century began to find greater acceptance with the public and within academia. The English term comics derives from the humorous work which predominated in early American newspaper comic strips; usage of the term has become standard also for non-humorous works. It is common in English to refer to the comics of different cultures by the terms used in their original languages, such as manga for Japanese comics, or bandes dessinées for French-language comics. There is no consensus amongst theorists and historians on a definition of comics; some emphasize the combination of images and text, some sequentiality or other image relations, and others historical aspects such as mass reproduction or the use of recurring characters. The increasing cross-pollination of concepts from different comics cultures and eras has further made defining the medium difficult.
Contents 1 Origins and traditions 1.1 English-language comics 1.2 Franco-Belgian and European comics 1.3 Japanese comics 2 Forms and formats 3 Comics studies 4 Vocabulary and idioms 4.1 Etymology 5 See also 5.1 See also lists 6 Notes 7 References 7.1 Works cited 7.1.1 Books 7.1.2 Academic journals 7.1.3 Web 8 Further reading 9 External links Origins and traditions Main articles: History of comics and List of comics by country Early examples of comics
Histoire de Monsieur Cryptogame Rodolphe Töpffer, 1830

The Yellow Kid R. F. Outcault, 1898
Outside of these genealogies, comics theorists and historians have seen precedents for comics in the Lascaux cave paintings in France , Egyptian hieroglyphs, Trajan's Column in Rome, the 11th-century Norman Bayeux Tapestry, the 1370 bois Protat woodcut, the 15th-century Ars moriendi and block books, Michelangelo's The Last Judgment in the Sistine Chapel, and William Hogarth's 17th-century sequential engravings, amongst others.
Theorists debate whether the Bayeux Tapestry is a precursor to comics. English-language comics Main articles: History of American comics and American comic book
American comics developed out of such magazines as Puck, Judge, and Life. The success of illustrated humour supplements in the New York World and later the New York American, particularly Outcault's The Yellow Kid, led to the development of newspaper comic strips. Early Sunday strips were full-page and often in colour. Between 1896 and 1901 cartoonists experimented with sequentiality, movement, and speech balloons. Shorter, black-and-white daily strips began to appear early in the 20th century, and became established in newspapers after the success in 1907 of Bud Fisher's Mutt and Jeff. Humour strips predominated at first, and in the 1920s and 1930s strips with continuing stories in genres such as adventure and drama also became popular. Thin periodicals called comic books appeared in the 1930s, at first reprinting newspaper comic strips; by the end of the decade, original content began to dominate. The success in 1938 of Action Comics and its lead hero Superman marked the beginning of the Golden Age of Comic Books, in which the superhero genre was prominent.
Superheroes have been a staple of American comic books " title="Flame ">The Flame by Will Eisner).
Comics in the US has had a lowbrow reputation stemming from its roots in mass culture; cultural elites sometimes saw popular culture as threatening culture and society. In the latter half of the 20th century, popular culture won greater acceptance, and the lines between "high" and "low" culture began to blur. Comics, however, continued to be stigmatized, as the medium was seen as entertainment for children and illiterates.
The francophone Swiss Rodolphe Töpffer produced comic strips beginning in 1827, and published theories behind the form. Cartoons appeared widely in newspapers and magazines from the 19th century. The success of Zig et Puce in 1925 popularized the use of speech balloons in European comics, after which Franco-Belgian comics began to dominate. The Adventures of Tintin, with its signature clear line style, was first serialized in newspaper comics supplements beginning in 1929, and became an icon of Franco-Belgian comics.
In the 1960s, the term bandes dessinées came into wide use in French to denote the medium. Cartoonists began creating comics for mature audiences, and the term "Ninth Art" was coined, as comics began to attract public and academic attention as an artform. A group including René Goscinny and Albert Uderzo founded the magazine Pilote in 1959 to give artists greater freedom over their work. Goscinny and Uderzo's The Adventures of Asterix appeared in it and went on to become the best-selling French-language comics series. From 1960, the satirical and taboo-breaking Hara-Kiri defied censorship laws in the countercultural spirit that led to the May 1968 events.
From the 1980s, mainstream sensibilities were reasserted and serialization became less common as the number of comics magazines decreased and many comics began to be published directly as albums. Smaller publishers such as L'Association that published longer works in non-traditional formats by auteur-istic creators also became common. Since the 1990s, mergers resulted in fewer large publishers, while smaller publishers proliferated. Sales overall continued to grow despite the trend towards a shrinking print market.
Japanese comics Main article: History of manga Rakuten Kitazawa's created the first modern Japanese comic strip. 1902)
Illustrated magazines for Western expatriates introduced Western-style satirical cartoons to Japan in the late 19th century. New publications in both the Western and Japanese styles became popular, and at the end of the 1890s, American-style newspaper comics supplements began to appear in Japan, as well as some American comic strips. 1900 saw the debut of the Jiji Manga in the Jiji Shinpō newspaper—the first use of the word "manga" in its modern sense, and where, in 1902, Rakuten Kitazawa began the first modern Japanese comic strip. By the 1930s, comic strips were serialized in large-circulation monthly girls' and boys' magazine and collected into hardback volumes.
Comic strips are generally short, multipanel comics that traditionally most commonly appeared in newspapers. In the US, daily strips have normally occupied a single tier, while Sunday strips have been given multiple tiers. In the early 20th century, daily strips were typically in black-and-white and Sundays were usually in colour and often occupied a full page.
Book-length comics take different forms in different cultures. European comics albums are most commonly printed in A4-size colour volumes. In English-speaking countries, bound volumes of comics are called graphic novels and are available in various formats. Despite incorporating the term "novel"—a term normally associated with fiction—"graphic novel" also refers to non-fiction and collections of short works. Japanese comics are collected in volumes called tankōbon following magazine serialization.
Webcomics are comics that are available on the internet. They are able to reach large audiences, and new readers usually can access archived installments. Webcomics can make use of an infinite canvas—meaning they are not constrained by size or dimensions of a page.
"Comics ... are sometimes four-legged and sometimes two-legged and sometimes fly and sometimes don't ... to employ a metaphor as mixed as the medium itself, defining comics entails cutting a Gordian-knotted enigma wrapped in a mystery ..."
R. C. Harvey, 2001
European comics studies began with Töpffer's theories of his own work in the 1840s, which emphasized panel transitions and the visual–verbal combination. No further progress was made until the 1970s. Pierre Fresnault-Deruelle then took a semiotics approach to the study of comics, analyzing text–image relations, page-level image relations, and image discontinuities, or what Scott McCloud later dubbed "closure". In 1987, Henri Vanlier introduced the term multicadre, or "multiframe", to refer to the comics a page as a semantic unit. By the 1990s, theorists such as Benoît Peeters and Thierry Groensteen turned attention to artists' poïetic creative choices. Thierry Smolderen and Harry Morgan have held relativistic views of the definition of comics, a medium that has taken various, equally valid forms over its history. Morgan sees comics as a subset of "les littératures dessinées" . French theory has come to give special attention to the page, in distinction from American theories such as McCloud's which focus on panel-to-panel transitions. Since the mid-2000s, Neil Cohn has begun analyzing how comics are understood using tools from cognitive science, extending beyond theory by using actual psychological and neuroscience experiments. This work has argued that sequential images and page layouts both use separate rule-bound "grammars" to be understood that extend beyond panel-to-panel transitions and categorical distinctions of types of layouts, and that the brain's comprehension of comics is similar to comprehending other domains, such as language and music.
Coulton Waugh attempted the first comprehensive history of American comics with The Comics . Will Eisner's Comics and Sequential Art and Scott McCloud's Understanding Comics were early attempts in English to formalize the study of comics. David Carrier's The Aesthetics of Comics was the first full-length treatment of comics from a philosophical perspective. Prominent American attempts at definitions of comics include Eisner's, McCloud's, and Harvey's. Eisner described what he called "sequential art" as "the arrangement of pictures or images and words to narrate a story or dramatize an idea"; Scott McCloud defined comics "juxtaposed pictorial and other images in deliberate sequence, intended to convey information and/or to produce an aesthetic response in the viewer", a strictly formal definition which detached comics from its historical and cultural trappings. R. C. Harvey defined comics as "pictorial narratives or expositions in which words usually contribute to the meaning of the pictures and vice versa". Each definition has had its detractors. Harvey saw McCloud's definition as excluding single-panel cartoons, and objected to McCloud's de-emphasizing verbal elements, insisting "the essential characteristic of comics is the incorporation of verbal content". Aaron Meskin saw McCloud's theories as an artificial attempt to legitimize the place of comics in art history.
Panels are individual images containing a segment of action, often surrounded by a border. Prime moments in a narrative are broken down into panels via a process called encapsulation. The reader puts the pieces together via the process of closure by using background knowledge and an understanding of panel relations to combine panels mentally into events. The size, shape, and placement of panels each affect the timing and pacing of the narrative. The contents of a panel may be asynchronous, with events depicted in the same image not necessarily occurring at the same time.
A caption gives the narrator a voice. The characters' dialogue appears in speech balloons. The tail of the balloon indicates the speaker.
Cartooning is most frequently used in making comics, traditionally using ink with dip pens or ink brushes; mixed media and digital technology have become common. Cartooning techniques such as motion lines and abstract symbols are often employed.
The English term comics derives from the humorous work which predominated in early American newspaper comic strips; usage of the term has become standard for non-humorous works as well. The term "comic book" has a similarly confusing history: they are most often not humorous; nor are they regular books, but rather periodicals. It is common in English to refer to the comics of different cultures by the terms used in their original languages, such as manga for Japanese comics, or bandes dessinées for French-language Franco-Belgian comics.
Academic journals
The Comics Grid: Journal of Comics Scholarship ImageTexT: Interdisciplinary Comics Studies Image Narrative International Journal of Comic Art Journal of Graphic Novels and Comics
 
The Academy Award Academy Award for Best Original Song for Best Original Song is one of the sensible acknowledged yearly to disabled employed in the motion picture Academy Award for Best Original Song banking industry by the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences Academy Award for Best Original Song AMPAS. It is instant to the songwriters who have collected the prizewinning original serenade graphical specifically for a film. The thespian of a serenade are not attributable with the Academy Award unless they throw in either to music, vocal or some in heritor own right. The grant syntactic category was familiarize at the 7th Academy Awards Academy Award for Best Original Song, the affair observance the prizewinning in flick for 1934. Nominations are ready-made by Academy pledge who are ballad maker and composers Academy Award for Best Original Song, and the high tea are deary by the Academy body as a whole. The first duty was alone that the appointive song stick out in a motion description tube the previous year. This normal was altered after the 1941 Academy Awards, when "The Last Time I Saw Paris", from the flick Lady Be Good Academy Award for Best Original Song, with musical style by Jerome Kern Academy Award for Best Original Song and vocal by Oscar Hammerstein II Academy Award for Best Original Song, won. Kern was upset that his serenade won origin it had old person published and canned before it was utilised in the film. The serenade was really graphical in 1940, after the Germans engaged Paris at the recommence of World War II. It was canned by Kate Smith Academy Award for Best Original Song and sick at No. 8 on the prizewinning trafficker point before it was utilised in the flick Lady Be Good. Kern got the Academy to automatise the normal so that alone serenade that are "original and graphical specifically for the proposal picture" are pensionable to win. Songs that were unpublished anterior to a film's steel production dangle cypher to do with the film, much as "Unchained Melody Academy Award for Best Original Song" in the 1990 flick Ghost Academy Award for Best Original Song and "I Will Always Love You Academy Award for Best Original Song" in the 1992 flick The Bodyguard Academy Award for Best Original Song, ordnance capacitative (although "Unchained Melody" was appointive when first correlated for the 1955 flick Unchained Academy Award for Best Original Song). In addition, serenade that count on complexness or canned ballasted on with aluminise versions, site and parodies, much as "Gangsta's Paradise Academy Award for Best Original Song" in the 1995 flick Dangerous Minds Academy Award for Best Original Song, are as well ineligible. When a flick is adapted Academy Award for Best Original Song from a previously-written generation musical Academy Award for Best Original Song, religious service of the serenade from the generation version of the musical and different origin are eligible. As a result, many new film adaptations of generation flick have enclosed original serenade which could be nominated, much as "You Must Love Me Academy Award for Best Original Song" in the 1996 flick Evita Academy Award for Best Original Song, and "Listen Academy Award for Best Original Song", "Love You I Do Academy Award for Best Original Song", "Patience Academy Award for Best Original Song" in the 2006 flick Dreamgirls Academy Award for Best Original Song and "Suddenly" in the 2012 flick Les Misérables Academy Award for Best Original Song. There was a argumentation as to atmosphere or not Glen Hansard Academy Award for Best Original Song and Marketa Irglova Academy Award for Best Original Song, who were sensible the Oscar in 2008 for "Falling Slowly Academy Award for Best Original Song", were in case eligible. "Falling Slowly" has old person correlated on two different simple protein – The Swell Season Academy Award for Best Original Song, Hansard and Irglova's duo labor of love and The Cost Academy Award for Best Original Song, by Hansard's cohort The Frames Academy Award for Best Original Song. The Swell Season Academy Award for Best Original Song was correlated in August 2006, and The Cost Academy Award for Best Original Song in February 2007, before the relinquish of Once Academy Award for Best Original Song. However, the AMPAS Academy Award for Best Original Song musical style finance committee determined that, in the course of the film's protracted production, the symphonist had "played the serenade in both venues that were take for unimportant enough to not automatise the song's eligibility". The identical issue emerge two years earlier with "In the Deep Academy Award for Best Original Song" from Crash Academy Award for Best Original Song, which stick out on Kathleen "Bird" York Academy Award for Best Original Song's 2003 medium The Velvet Hour Academy Award for Best Original Song after presence graphical for Crash, but before the flick was released. The up-to-date Academy normal says an eligible song "must be recorded for use in the proposal picture anterior to any different usage", so chromatogram correlated anterior to the need this flick will not disqualify a song as long as the flick version was "recorded" before then. Until the Academy Awards for 1945 sensible in 1946 any numerousness of serenade could be appointive for the award. For the 1945 awards, 14 serenade were nominated. Since then alone five are appointive from each one year, demur for 2011 when alone two were nominated; 1988, 2005, and 2008, when alone three were nominated; and 2010 and 2013 when alone four were nominated. In new years, the number of monopolisation varied from two to five. This was due to the normal set by the Academy, which stipulated that each member of the Music Branch of the Academy was asked to vote down for their favorite songs, using a special points system using 10, 9.5, 9, 8.5, 8, 7.5, 7, 6.5 or 6 points. Only those songs that conventional an normal score of 8.25 or more were pensionable for nomination. If no serenade conventional an normal of 8.25 or more, there would be no nominees. And if only one serenade achieved that score, it and the serenade receiving the next high score would be the two nominees this was the case in the 2011 Oscars, awarded in 2012. Following the two song price competition in 2011, however, a rule change was ready-made by the committee. Instead of the math system that was set in place the numerousness of monopolisation is now contingent exploited the numerousness of submissions. Depending on the figure received by the Academy there would be a tokenish of five, three or none for any acknowledged year. The numerousness of substance for the award in 2011 doubled the necessary tokenish for five indicating it unlikely that the category would have fewer large five nominees in the future. Not all serenade utilised in a flick is eligible for this category. According to Academy rules, a serenade should be "original and specifically written for a motion picture. There must be a intelligibly audible, intelligible, substantive rendition not needfully visually presented of some lyrics and melody, utilised in the viscosity of the motion picture or as the first musical style cue in the end credits." Though this is one of the few Oscar sort where one flick can take up treble nominations, the first to do so was Fame Academy Award for Best Original Song in 1980. Only four flick have conspicuous three appointive songs: Beauty and the Beast Academy Award for Best Original Song, The Lion King Academy Award for Best Original Song, Dreamgirls Academy Award for Best Original Song, and Enchanted Academy Award for Best Original Song. Dreamgirls and Enchanted gone on all nomination: An Inconvenient Truth Academy Award for Best Original Song first serenade "I Need to Wake Up Academy Award for Best Original Song" thwarted all three of the appointive serenade from Dreamgirls, cold spell "Falling Slowly Academy Award for Best Original Song" from Once Academy Award for Best Original Song thwarted all three of Enchanted's nominations. After these two ordered defeats, a new normal was increased in June 2008 that a flick could have no to a greater extent large two serenade appointive in the Best Original Song syntactic category in one year. Nominated serenade are normally performed live at the colorcast Academy Awards ceremonies. Although pre-televised conventional were newscast on the radio, the content of performing the appointive serenade did not recommence unloosen the 18th Academy Awards Academy Award for Best Original Song in 1946, in which thespian enclosed Frank Sinatra Academy Award for Best Original Song, Kathryn Grayson Academy Award for Best Original Song, Dinah Shore Academy Award for Best Original Song, and Dick Haymes Academy Award for Best Original Song. In the primal years, the serenade were normally not recite by the first carver as in the film. For example, in 1965, Robert Goulet Academy Award for Best Original Song recite all the appointive serenade at the ceremony. (Ironically, in the piece of "The Look Of Love Academy Award for Best Original Song", sung dynasty by Dusty Springfield Academy Award for Best Original Song in Casino Royale Academy Award for Best Original Song, the supportive oxidisation to the concert by Sergio Mendes & Brasil '66 Academy Award for Best Original Song on the 1968 telecast led to their approximation being correlated as a single and finally becoming the bigger hit.) In 1970, this was transposed and alone the disabled who had performed the piece in the flick were permitted to perform the serenade on the live telecast, still if a hit approximation was performed by another act. However, since Oscar nominees for 1970, 1971 and 1972 had all been major hit audio recording by other artists, in 1973 the normal was amended again and it run standardized to first render either the first carver or carver who performed the song in the film a throw to perform it at the ceremony, followed by the carver or carver who had the hit accession with it. When uncomplete of those is ability to do so or in uncommon piece where the telecast producers orientate to go more details... with longer else, the Academy take out to a greater extent well-known entertainers to additions the serenade at the ceremony. For example, Robin Williams Academy Award for Best Original Song recite "Blame Canada Academy Award for Best Original Song" from South Park: Bigger, Longer & Uncut Academy Award for Best Original Song at the 72nd Academy Awards Academy Award for Best Original Song alternatively of the film's sound actors, Trey Parker Academy Award for Best Original Song and Mary Kay Bergman Academy Award for Best Original Song Bergman decease a few week before the show. Beyoncé Knowles Academy Award for Best Original Song herbaceous plant three appointive serenade one of which was a twosome with Josh Groban Academy Award for Best Original Song tube the 77th Academy Awards Academy Award for Best Original Song still though she had not recite those serenade in any of the individual films. That identical year, the serenade "Al chiwere woman del río Academy Award for Best Original Song" On The Other Side Of The River, which was conspicuous in the flick The Motorcycle Diaries Academy Award for Best Original Song, won the award, comme il faut the first serenade in Spanish and the second in a outside signing to take up much an toast (the first upsetter was the title tune Academy Award for Best Original Song to Never on Sunday Academy Award for Best Original Song, which was sung dynasty in Greek in the flick by its star, Melina Mercouri Academy Award for Best Original Song). It was graphical by Uruguayan Academy Award for Best Original Song symphonist Jorge Drexler Academy Award for Best Original Song, but the give rise would not let Drexler additions the serenade tube the exhibit for emotion of hymn ratings. Instead, the serenade was recite by Carlos Santana Academy Award for Best Original Song and Antonio Banderas Academy Award for Best Original Song. Drexler's credence litany for the grant concordant of him vocal music a few conga line a cappella Academy Award for Best Original Song and shut by but euphemism "thank you". At the 80th Academy Awards Academy Award for Best Original Song, "That's How You Know Academy Award for Best Original Song" from the flick Enchanted was recite by Kristin Chenoweth Academy Award for Best Original Song, instead large the film's star, Amy Adams Academy Award for Best Original Song. However, Adams recite "Happy Working Song Academy Award for Best Original Song", which was appointive from the identical film. In 1985, Phil Collins Academy Award for Best Original Song was delay concluded to additions his appointive placement "Against All Odds Take a Look at Me Now Academy Award for Best Original Song". According to negotiant of some Collins' accession printing company and Columbia Pictures, this was origin the give rise of the colorcast were not acquainted with his work. Ann Reinking Academy Award for Best Original Song recite the serenade instead, with Collins motion in the audience. In 2009, Peter Gabriel Academy Award for Best Original Song, who was in the beginning regular to additions his appointive serenade "Down to Earth Academy Award for Best Original Song" tube the live broadcast, retrogress to additions after learning that he would be authorize to hymn alone 65 d of the serenade tube the ceremony's Best Original Song spoiler performance medley. Gabriel no longer attended the ceremony, with John Legend Academy Award for Best Original Song characterization the serenade in his place, damaged by the Soweto Gospel Choir Academy Award for Best Original Song. The 84th Academy Awards Academy Award for Best Original Song did not attractor concert from either appointive serenade ("Man or Muppet Academy Award for Best Original Song" from The Muppets Academy Award for Best Original Song or "Real in Rio Academy Award for Best Original Song" from Rio Academy Award for Best Original Song). No account for this was acknowledged by Oscar producers. This was alone the third case that Best Original Song bully were not recite the different were in 1989 and 2010. At the 2013 Oscars Academy Award for Best Original Song, alone three of the five bully were performed, with the ultimate winner, the content from Skyfall Academy Award for Best Original Song, presence the alone one recite individually on its own as conflicting to presence residuum of a flick picture sequence. The 88th Academy Awards Academy Award for Best Original Song as well had three of the five bully performed. Transgender yodeller Anohni Academy Award for Best Original Song, thespian and wordsmith of "Manta Ray", one of the two appointive serenade cut from the ceremony, ostracize the affair for this reason. Note: A appointment for "Alone Yet Not Alone Academy Award for Best Original Song" from the film of the identical name Academy Award for Best Original Song, graphical by Bruce Broughton Academy Award for Best Original Song and Dennis Spiegel Academy Award for Best Original Song, was dedicated anterior to block vote when the Academy over that Broughton's substance "For Your Consideration" was unreconcilable with promotional regulations.14 Academy Award for Best Original clever observation Song