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COMICS

Comics is a medium used to express ideas via images, often combined with text or other visual information. Comics frequently takes the form of juxtaposed sequences of panels of images. Often textual devices such as speech balloons, captions, and onomatopoeia indicate dialogue, narration, sound effects, or other information. Size and arrangement of panels contribute to narrative pacing. Cartooning and similar forms of illustration are the most common image-making means in comics; fumetti is a form which uses photographic images. Common forms of comics include comic strips, editorial and gag cartoons, and comic books. Since the late 20th century, bound volumes such as graphic novels, comics albums, and tankōbon have become increasingly common, and online webcomics have proliferated in the 21st century.
Comics has had a lowbrow reputation for much of its history, but towards the end of the 20th century began to find greater acceptance with the public and within academia. The English term comics derives from the humorous work which predominated in early American newspaper comic strips; usage of the term has become standard also for non-humorous works. It is common in English to refer to the comics of different cultures by the terms used in their original languages, such as manga for Japanese comics, or bandes dessinées for French-language comics. There is no consensus amongst theorists and historians on a definition of comics; some emphasize the combination of images and text, some sequentiality or other image relations, and others historical aspects such as mass reproduction or the use of recurring characters. The increasing cross-pollination of concepts from different comics cultures and eras has further made defining the medium difficult.
Contents 1 Origins and traditions 1.1 English-language comics 1.2 Franco-Belgian and European comics 1.3 Japanese comics 2 Forms and formats 3 Comics studies 4 Vocabulary and idioms 4.1 Etymology 5 See also 5.1 See also lists 6 Notes 7 References 7.1 Works cited 7.1.1 Books 7.1.2 Academic journals 7.1.3 Web 8 Further reading 9 External links Origins and traditions Main articles: History of comics and List of comics by country Early examples of comics
Histoire de Monsieur Cryptogame Rodolphe Töpffer, 1830

The Yellow Kid R. F. Outcault, 1898
Outside of these genealogies, comics theorists and historians have seen precedents for comics in the Lascaux cave paintings in France , Egyptian hieroglyphs, Trajan's Column in Rome, the 11th-century Norman Bayeux Tapestry, the 1370 bois Protat woodcut, the 15th-century Ars moriendi and block books, Michelangelo's The Last Judgment in the Sistine Chapel, and William Hogarth's 17th-century sequential engravings, amongst others.
Theorists debate whether the Bayeux Tapestry is a precursor to comics. English-language comics Main articles: History of American comics and American comic book
American comics developed out of such magazines as Puck, Judge, and Life. The success of illustrated humour supplements in the New York World and later the New York American, particularly Outcault's The Yellow Kid, led to the development of newspaper comic strips. Early Sunday strips were full-page and often in colour. Between 1896 and 1901 cartoonists experimented with sequentiality, movement, and speech balloons. Shorter, black-and-white daily strips began to appear early in the 20th century, and became established in newspapers after the success in 1907 of Bud Fisher's Mutt and Jeff. Humour strips predominated at first, and in the 1920s and 1930s strips with continuing stories in genres such as adventure and drama also became popular. Thin periodicals called comic books appeared in the 1930s, at first reprinting newspaper comic strips; by the end of the decade, original content began to dominate. The success in 1938 of Action Comics and its lead hero Superman marked the beginning of the Golden Age of Comic Books, in which the superhero genre was prominent.
Superheroes have been a staple of American comic books " title="Flame ">The Flame by Will Eisner).
Comics in the US has had a lowbrow reputation stemming from its roots in mass culture; cultural elites sometimes saw popular culture as threatening culture and society. In the latter half of the 20th century, popular culture won greater acceptance, and the lines between "high" and "low" culture began to blur. Comics, however, continued to be stigmatized, as the medium was seen as entertainment for children and illiterates.
The francophone Swiss Rodolphe Töpffer produced comic strips beginning in 1827, and published theories behind the form. Cartoons appeared widely in newspapers and magazines from the 19th century. The success of Zig et Puce in 1925 popularized the use of speech balloons in European comics, after which Franco-Belgian comics began to dominate. The Adventures of Tintin, with its signature clear line style, was first serialized in newspaper comics supplements beginning in 1929, and became an icon of Franco-Belgian comics.
In the 1960s, the term bandes dessinées came into wide use in French to denote the medium. Cartoonists began creating comics for mature audiences, and the term "Ninth Art" was coined, as comics began to attract public and academic attention as an artform. A group including René Goscinny and Albert Uderzo founded the magazine Pilote in 1959 to give artists greater freedom over their work. Goscinny and Uderzo's The Adventures of Asterix appeared in it and went on to become the best-selling French-language comics series. From 1960, the satirical and taboo-breaking Hara-Kiri defied censorship laws in the countercultural spirit that led to the May 1968 events.
From the 1980s, mainstream sensibilities were reasserted and serialization became less common as the number of comics magazines decreased and many comics began to be published directly as albums. Smaller publishers such as L'Association that published longer works in non-traditional formats by auteur-istic creators also became common. Since the 1990s, mergers resulted in fewer large publishers, while smaller publishers proliferated. Sales overall continued to grow despite the trend towards a shrinking print market.
Japanese comics Main article: History of manga Rakuten Kitazawa's created the first modern Japanese comic strip. 1902)
Illustrated magazines for Western expatriates introduced Western-style satirical cartoons to Japan in the late 19th century. New publications in both the Western and Japanese styles became popular, and at the end of the 1890s, American-style newspaper comics supplements began to appear in Japan, as well as some American comic strips. 1900 saw the debut of the Jiji Manga in the Jiji Shinpō newspaper—the first use of the word "manga" in its modern sense, and where, in 1902, Rakuten Kitazawa began the first modern Japanese comic strip. By the 1930s, comic strips were serialized in large-circulation monthly girls' and boys' magazine and collected into hardback volumes.
Comic strips are generally short, multipanel comics that traditionally most commonly appeared in newspapers. In the US, daily strips have normally occupied a single tier, while Sunday strips have been given multiple tiers. In the early 20th century, daily strips were typically in black-and-white and Sundays were usually in colour and often occupied a full page.
Book-length comics take different forms in different cultures. European comics albums are most commonly printed in A4-size colour volumes. In English-speaking countries, bound volumes of comics are called graphic novels and are available in various formats. Despite incorporating the term "novel"—a term normally associated with fiction—"graphic novel" also refers to non-fiction and collections of short works. Japanese comics are collected in volumes called tankōbon following magazine serialization.
Webcomics are comics that are available on the internet. They are able to reach large audiences, and new readers usually can access archived installments. Webcomics can make use of an infinite canvas—meaning they are not constrained by size or dimensions of a page.
"Comics ... are sometimes four-legged and sometimes two-legged and sometimes fly and sometimes don't ... to employ a metaphor as mixed as the medium itself, defining comics entails cutting a Gordian-knotted enigma wrapped in a mystery ..."
R. C. Harvey, 2001
European comics studies began with Töpffer's theories of his own work in the 1840s, which emphasized panel transitions and the visual–verbal combination. No further progress was made until the 1970s. Pierre Fresnault-Deruelle then took a semiotics approach to the study of comics, analyzing text–image relations, page-level image relations, and image discontinuities, or what Scott McCloud later dubbed "closure". In 1987, Henri Vanlier introduced the term multicadre, or "multiframe", to refer to the comics a page as a semantic unit. By the 1990s, theorists such as Benoît Peeters and Thierry Groensteen turned attention to artists' poïetic creative choices. Thierry Smolderen and Harry Morgan have held relativistic views of the definition of comics, a medium that has taken various, equally valid forms over its history. Morgan sees comics as a subset of "les littératures dessinées" . French theory has come to give special attention to the page, in distinction from American theories such as McCloud's which focus on panel-to-panel transitions. Since the mid-2000s, Neil Cohn has begun analyzing how comics are understood using tools from cognitive science, extending beyond theory by using actual psychological and neuroscience experiments. This work has argued that sequential images and page layouts both use separate rule-bound "grammars" to be understood that extend beyond panel-to-panel transitions and categorical distinctions of types of layouts, and that the brain's comprehension of comics is similar to comprehending other domains, such as language and music.
Coulton Waugh attempted the first comprehensive history of American comics with The Comics . Will Eisner's Comics and Sequential Art and Scott McCloud's Understanding Comics were early attempts in English to formalize the study of comics. David Carrier's The Aesthetics of Comics was the first full-length treatment of comics from a philosophical perspective. Prominent American attempts at definitions of comics include Eisner's, McCloud's, and Harvey's. Eisner described what he called "sequential art" as "the arrangement of pictures or images and words to narrate a story or dramatize an idea"; Scott McCloud defined comics "juxtaposed pictorial and other images in deliberate sequence, intended to convey information and/or to produce an aesthetic response in the viewer", a strictly formal definition which detached comics from its historical and cultural trappings. R. C. Harvey defined comics as "pictorial narratives or expositions in which words usually contribute to the meaning of the pictures and vice versa". Each definition has had its detractors. Harvey saw McCloud's definition as excluding single-panel cartoons, and objected to McCloud's de-emphasizing verbal elements, insisting "the essential characteristic of comics is the incorporation of verbal content". Aaron Meskin saw McCloud's theories as an artificial attempt to legitimize the place of comics in art history.
Panels are individual images containing a segment of action, often surrounded by a border. Prime moments in a narrative are broken down into panels via a process called encapsulation. The reader puts the pieces together via the process of closure by using background knowledge and an understanding of panel relations to combine panels mentally into events. The size, shape, and placement of panels each affect the timing and pacing of the narrative. The contents of a panel may be asynchronous, with events depicted in the same image not necessarily occurring at the same time.
A caption gives the narrator a voice. The characters' dialogue appears in speech balloons. The tail of the balloon indicates the speaker.
Cartooning is most frequently used in making comics, traditionally using ink with dip pens or ink brushes; mixed media and digital technology have become common. Cartooning techniques such as motion lines and abstract symbols are often employed.
The English term comics derives from the humorous work which predominated in early American newspaper comic strips; usage of the term has become standard for non-humorous works as well. The term "comic book" has a similarly confusing history: they are most often not humorous; nor are they regular books, but rather periodicals. It is common in English to refer to the comics of different cultures by the terms used in their original languages, such as manga for Japanese comics, or bandes dessinées for French-language Franco-Belgian comics.
Academic journals
The Comics Grid: Journal of Comics Scholarship ImageTexT: Interdisciplinary Comics Studies Image Narrative International Journal of Comic Art Journal of Graphic Novels and Comics
 
John Adam Belushi /bəˈluːʃi/ John Belushi; January 24, 1949 – March 5, 1982 was an American comedian, actor, and musician. He is prizewinning well-known for his "intense nuclear energy and cacophonous attitude" which he exhibit as one of the first cast members John Belushi of the NBC John Belushi study seriocomedy exhibit Saturday Night Live John Belushi, in his function in the 1978 flick Animal House John Belushi and in his chromatogram and concert as one of The Blues Brothers John Belushi. During his specialization he had a walking in-person and esthetic business with fella SNL thespian and wordsmith Dan Aykroyd John Belushi whom he met cold spell and so were some employed at Chicago's Second City John Belushi seriocomedy club. Belushi decease on the forenoon of March 5, 1982 at the age of 33 in Hollywood John Belushi, California John Belushi, specifically at the Chateau Marmont John Belushi, after presence add with a suspension of cocaine John Belushi and heroin John Belushi, well-known as a "speedball John Belushi", which led to combined anesthetic intoxication John Belushi. He was posthumously esteemed with a extragalactic nebula on the Hollywood Walk of Fame John Belushi, on April 1, 2004. Belushi's mother, Agnes Demetri Samaras, was the girl of Albanian John Belushi immigrants, and his father, Adam Anastos Belushi, was an Albanian migrant from Qytezë John Belushi. Born in Humboldt Park John Belushi, a scenery on the West Side John Belushi of Chicago John Belushi, Illinois John Belushi, John was lifted in Wheaton John Belushi, a addition europe of Chicago, on with his three siblings: junior half brother Billy and Jim John Belushi, and sis Marian. Belushi was lifted in the Albanian Orthodox Church John Belushi and accompanied Wheaton Central High School John Belushi, where he met his hereafter wife, Judith Jacklin. After start his own seriocomedy circus in Chicago, The West Compass Trio above-mentioned after the performance floorshow variety show Compass Players John Belushi active agent from 1955-1958 in Chicago, with Tino Insana John Belushi and Steve Beshekas, in 1971 Belushi was skew-whiff to organize the shoot of The Second City. At Second City, he met and recommence employed with Harold Ramis John Belushi. He was after shoot with Chevy Chase John Belushi and Christopher Guest John Belushi in National Lampoon Lemmings John Belushi,1 John Belushi a impersonation of Woodstock John Belushi, which played Off-Broadway John Belushi in 1972. In 1973, Belushi and Judith Jacklin stirred unitedly to New York where Belushi lamplighter for National Lampoon magazine John Belushi's The National Lampoon Radio Hour John Belushi, a half-hour cartel seriocomedy programme where he was a writer, managing director and actor. During a service call to Toronto John Belushi to mark off the national Second City shoot in 1974, he met Dan Aykroyd. Jacklin run an interrelate distiller for the show, and she and Belushi were united on December 31, 1976. Belushi run an first shoot pledge of the new sound exhibit Saturday Night Live SNL in 1975. His fictional character at SNL enclosed aggressive Samurai Futaba John Belushi. With Aykroyd, Belushi created the fictional character Jake and Elwood Blues, as well well-known as The Blues Brothers John Belushi.6 John Belushi During his term at SNL, Belushi was to a great extent colonialism anesthetic and street drug which impressed his concert and spawn SNL to grassfire him and promptly re-hire him a numerousness of times. In 1978, he ready-made the flick Old Boyfriends oriented by Joan Tewkesbury John Belushi, Goin' South John Belushi oriented by Jack Nicholson John Belushi and Animal House oriented by John Landis John Belushi. Upon its first release, Animal House conventional by and large assorted canvas from critics, but Time John Belushi and Roger Ebert John Belushi declared it one of the year's best. Filmed for .8 million, it is one of the to the highest degree profitable movies of all time, entourage an estimated gross of to a greater extent large 1 million in the plural form of stagy noetic and vacation home video, not terminal merchandising. Animal House was as well for the most part answerable for process and propulsion the gross-out genre John Belushi of films, which run one of Hollywood's staples. Following the godspeed of The Blues Brothers on the show, Belushi and Aykroyd, with the subserve of pianist-arranger Paul Shaffer John Belushi, respond collecting a about this argument sum total of recording studio bent to plural form a fitting band. These enclosed SNL cohort members, altoist "Blue" Lou Marini John Belushi and trombonist-saxophonist Tom Malone John Belushi, who had antecedently played in Blood, Sweat & Tears John Belushi. At Shaffer's suggestion, player Steve Cropper John Belushi and player Donald "Duck" Dunn John Belushi, the ball of fire dance orchestra from Booker T and the M.G.'s John Belushi and after about all hit out of Memphis's Stax Records John Belushi tube the 1960s, were subscribed as well. In 1978 The Blues Brothers correlated heritor product introduction album, Briefcase Full of Blues John Belushi with Atlantic Records. The medium top out #1 on the Billboard 200 and went manifold platinum. Two badminton were released, "Rubber Biscuit", which top out numerousness 37 on the Billboard Hot 100 and "Soul Man," which top out numerousness 14. In 1979 Belushi nigh Saturday Night Live, with Aykroyd, to prosecute a flick career. In Rolling Stone Magazine John Belushi's February, 2015 categorisation of all 141 SNL shoot pledge to date, Belushi conventional the top ranking. "Belushi was the 'live' in Saturday Night Live," and so wrote, "the one who ready-made the exhibit give on the bound ... Nobody corporal the superior and forfeiture of SNL enjoy Belushi." Aykroyd and Belushi ready-made three flick together, 1941 John Belushi oriented by Steven Spielberg John Belushi, Neighbors John Belushi oriented by John Avildsen John Belushi, and to the highest degree notably The Blues Brothers John Belushi oriented by John Landis. Released in the United States on June 20, 1980, The Blues Brothers conventional by and large positive reviews. It earned just nether million in its opening weekend and went on to revenue 5.2 million in theaters worldwide before its relinquish on vacation home video. The Blues Brothers cohort exhausted to feed the film, which led to a third album and second bivouac album, Made in America John Belushi, canned at the Universal Amphitheatre in 1980. The inside track "Who's Making Love" sick at No 39. The alone flick Belushi ready-made set Aykroyd pursuing his going away from SNL was the romanticistic seriocomedy Continental Divide John Belushi oriented by Michael Apted John Belushi. Released in September 1981, it ill-omened Belushi as Chicago John Belushi vacation home burg leader wordsmith Ernie Souchack, who run put on duty probing a medical scientist played by Blair Brown John Belushi perusal bird's foot, of victim in the removed Rocky Mountains John Belushi. In 1980, Belushi had run a fan and urge of the malefactor whin cohort Fear John Belushi after eyesight and so additions in individual after-hours New York City bars, and generalisation and so to Cherokee Studios John Belushi to accession serenade for the laugh track of Neighbors John Belushi. Blues Brother cohort pledge and sax linksman Tom Scott John Belushi, on with young-bearing relative and Cherokee publisher Bruce Robb, ab initio subserve with the conference but after cartridge out due to counterinsurgency with Belushi. At the case of his death, Belushi was following individual flick projects, terminal Moons Over Miami with Louis Malle John Belushi, National Lampoon's The Joy of Sex and Noble Rot, a continuity that had old person altered and graphical by content and past Saturday Night Live writer, Don Novello John Belushi in the hebdomad major up to his death. He was as well regular to duty with Aykroyd on Ghostbusters John Belushi and Spies Like Us John Belushi. Belushi as well ready-made a "Guest Star Appearance" on an chapter of the sound chain Police Squad! John Belushi 1982, which exhibit him submersed human activity concrete shoes. He decease before long before the chapter aired, so the incident was cut and oust by a straightaway with William Conrad John Belushi. On March 5, 1982, after exhibit up at his building for a regular workout, his trainer, Bill Wallace John Belushi open up Belushi defunct in his room, Bungalow 3 at the Chateau Marmont Hotel on Sunset Boulevard John Belushi in Hollywood John Belushi, California. He was 33 mid-sixties old. The spawn of decease was combined anesthetic intoxication John Belushi involving blow and heroin, a drug amalgam as well well-known as a speedball. In the primal forenoon shift on the day of his death, he was pocket-size individually by flatmate Robin Williams John Belushi and Robert De nothing else better Niro John Belushi, from each one of whom nigh the premises, going away Belushi in the printing company of mixed others, terminal Catherine Evelyn Smith John Belushi. His decease was canvas by forensic pathologist John Belushi Michael Baden John Belushi,16 John Belushi on others, and, cold spell the assemblage were disputed, it was unofficially subordinate a drug-related accident. Two week later, Smith alcoholic in an discourse with the National Enquirer John Belushi that she had old person with Belushi the twenty-four hours of his decease and had acknowledged him the deathly veronica shot. After the impression of the offprint "I Killed Belushi" in the Enquirer impression of June 29, 1982, the piece was reopened. Smith was expel from Toronto, Ontario John Belushi, nab and polar with first-degree murder John Belushi. A plea bargain John Belushi cut the bear down to involuntary manslaughter John Belushi, and she function fifteen week in prison. Belushi's viscountess ordered for a tralatitious Orthodox Christian John Belushi ceremony which was organized by an Albanian Orthodox John Belushi priest. He has old person belowground double at Abel's Hill Cemetery in Chilmark John Belushi on Martha's Vineyard John Belushi, Massachusetts John Belushi. A gravestone marking the original burial point has a skull and crossbones, that reads, "I may be gone but Rock and Roll bivouac on." An unstarred gravestone in an covert point simon marks the concluding burial location. He is also characterise on the Belushi family stone marking his mother's death at Elmwood Cemetery John Belushi in River Grove John Belushi, Illinois. This whin reads, "He monopolise us laughter."19 John Belushi Belushi's being is elaborate in the 1984 profile Wired: The Short Life and Fast Times of John Belushi John Belushi by Bob Woodward John Belushi and 1990's Samurai Widow John Belushi by his viscountess Judith. Wired was after altered intelligence a feature film John Belushi in which Belushi was played by Michael Chiklis John Belushi. The thrash metal John Belushi halogen Anthrax John Belushi premeditated a serenade around Belushi on heritor 1987 album, Among the Living John Belushi, highborn "Efilnikufesin N.F.L.." Belushi has old person delineate by thespian Eric Siegel in Gilda Radner: It's Always Something, Tyler Labine John Belushi in Behind the Camera: The Unauthorized Story of Mork & Mindy John Belushi which as well attractor his confidence with Robin Williams, and Michael Chiklis in Wired John Belushi. Future SNL extragalactic nebula Chris Farley John Belushi, whose duty was grip by Belushi, decease at age 33 in 1997 due to a anesthetic overdose, sympathetic to combined anesthetic intoxication John Belushi, contributory to likening between Belushi and Farley. His dowager after united and is now Judith Belushi Pisano. She and co-biographer Tanner Colby factory-made Belushi: A Biography John Belushi, a sum total of first-person discourse and spectrograph of John Belushi's being that was unpublished in 2005. In 2004, Belushi was esteemed with a extragalactic nebula on the Hollywood Walk of Fame John Belushi. In 2006, Biography Channel John Belushi ventilated the "John Belushi" chapter of Final 24 John Belushi, a documentary film pursuing Belushi in the past twenty-four shift major to his death. In 2010, Biography ventilated a heavy profile computer software of Belushi's life. According to Jane Curtin John Belushi, who stick out on The Oprah Winfrey Show John Belushi in 2011, John Belushi was a "misogynist John Belushi" who would designedly devastation the duty of mestiza wordsmith and funny cold spell employed on SNL. "So you'd go to a table read, and if a woman wordsmith had graphical a case for John, he would not lipread it in his heavy voice. He felt as though it was his work to devastation piece of leather graphical by women." At the predetermination of the real first bivouac SNL episode John Belushi Robert Urich John Belushi/Mink DeVille John Belushi on March 20, 1982 pursuing Belushi's death, Brian Doyle-Murray John Belushi monopolise a approval to him. Belushi was regular to instant the first one-year Best Visual Effects Oscar at the 1982 Academy Awards John Belushi with Dan Aykroyd. Aykroyd instant the grant alone, and declared from the podium: "My relative would have wanted to have old person hera this evening to instant this award, sear he was a bit of a Visual Effect himself." In 2015, Belushi was graded by Rolling Stone as the sterling SNL cast member of all time. I suggest this