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COMICS

Comics is a medium used to express ideas via images, often combined with text or other visual information. Comics frequently takes the form of juxtaposed sequences of panels of images. Often textual devices such as speech balloons, captions, and onomatopoeia indicate dialogue, narration, sound effects, or other information. Size and arrangement of panels contribute to narrative pacing. Cartooning and similar forms of illustration are the most common image-making means in comics; fumetti is a form which uses photographic images. Common forms of comics include comic strips, editorial and gag cartoons, and comic books. Since the late 20th century, bound volumes such as graphic novels, comics albums, and tankōbon have become increasingly common, and online webcomics have proliferated in the 21st century.
Comics has had a lowbrow reputation for much of its history, but towards the end of the 20th century began to find greater acceptance with the public and within academia. The English term comics derives from the humorous work which predominated in early American newspaper comic strips; usage of the term has become standard also for non-humorous works. It is common in English to refer to the comics of different cultures by the terms used in their original languages, such as manga for Japanese comics, or bandes dessinées for French-language comics. There is no consensus amongst theorists and historians on a definition of comics; some emphasize the combination of images and text, some sequentiality or other image relations, and others historical aspects such as mass reproduction or the use of recurring characters. The increasing cross-pollination of concepts from different comics cultures and eras has further made defining the medium difficult.
Contents 1 Origins and traditions 1.1 English-language comics 1.2 Franco-Belgian and European comics 1.3 Japanese comics 2 Forms and formats 3 Comics studies 4 Vocabulary and idioms 4.1 Etymology 5 See also 5.1 See also lists 6 Notes 7 References 7.1 Works cited 7.1.1 Books 7.1.2 Academic journals 7.1.3 Web 8 Further reading 9 External links Origins and traditions Main articles: History of comics and List of comics by country Early examples of comics
Histoire de Monsieur Cryptogame Rodolphe Töpffer, 1830

The Yellow Kid R. F. Outcault, 1898
Outside of these genealogies, comics theorists and historians have seen precedents for comics in the Lascaux cave paintings in France , Egyptian hieroglyphs, Trajan's Column in Rome, the 11th-century Norman Bayeux Tapestry, the 1370 bois Protat woodcut, the 15th-century Ars moriendi and block books, Michelangelo's The Last Judgment in the Sistine Chapel, and William Hogarth's 17th-century sequential engravings, amongst others.
Theorists debate whether the Bayeux Tapestry is a precursor to comics. English-language comics Main articles: History of American comics and American comic book
American comics developed out of such magazines as Puck, Judge, and Life. The success of illustrated humour supplements in the New York World and later the New York American, particularly Outcault's The Yellow Kid, led to the development of newspaper comic strips. Early Sunday strips were full-page and often in colour. Between 1896 and 1901 cartoonists experimented with sequentiality, movement, and speech balloons. Shorter, black-and-white daily strips began to appear early in the 20th century, and became established in newspapers after the success in 1907 of Bud Fisher's Mutt and Jeff. Humour strips predominated at first, and in the 1920s and 1930s strips with continuing stories in genres such as adventure and drama also became popular. Thin periodicals called comic books appeared in the 1930s, at first reprinting newspaper comic strips; by the end of the decade, original content began to dominate. The success in 1938 of Action Comics and its lead hero Superman marked the beginning of the Golden Age of Comic Books, in which the superhero genre was prominent.
Superheroes have been a staple of American comic books " title="Flame ">The Flame by Will Eisner).
Comics in the US has had a lowbrow reputation stemming from its roots in mass culture; cultural elites sometimes saw popular culture as threatening culture and society. In the latter half of the 20th century, popular culture won greater acceptance, and the lines between "high" and "low" culture began to blur. Comics, however, continued to be stigmatized, as the medium was seen as entertainment for children and illiterates.
The francophone Swiss Rodolphe Töpffer produced comic strips beginning in 1827, and published theories behind the form. Cartoons appeared widely in newspapers and magazines from the 19th century. The success of Zig et Puce in 1925 popularized the use of speech balloons in European comics, after which Franco-Belgian comics began to dominate. The Adventures of Tintin, with its signature clear line style, was first serialized in newspaper comics supplements beginning in 1929, and became an icon of Franco-Belgian comics.
In the 1960s, the term bandes dessinées came into wide use in French to denote the medium. Cartoonists began creating comics for mature audiences, and the term "Ninth Art" was coined, as comics began to attract public and academic attention as an artform. A group including René Goscinny and Albert Uderzo founded the magazine Pilote in 1959 to give artists greater freedom over their work. Goscinny and Uderzo's The Adventures of Asterix appeared in it and went on to become the best-selling French-language comics series. From 1960, the satirical and taboo-breaking Hara-Kiri defied censorship laws in the countercultural spirit that led to the May 1968 events.
From the 1980s, mainstream sensibilities were reasserted and serialization became less common as the number of comics magazines decreased and many comics began to be published directly as albums. Smaller publishers such as L'Association that published longer works in non-traditional formats by auteur-istic creators also became common. Since the 1990s, mergers resulted in fewer large publishers, while smaller publishers proliferated. Sales overall continued to grow despite the trend towards a shrinking print market.
Japanese comics Main article: History of manga Rakuten Kitazawa's created the first modern Japanese comic strip. 1902)
Illustrated magazines for Western expatriates introduced Western-style satirical cartoons to Japan in the late 19th century. New publications in both the Western and Japanese styles became popular, and at the end of the 1890s, American-style newspaper comics supplements began to appear in Japan, as well as some American comic strips. 1900 saw the debut of the Jiji Manga in the Jiji Shinpō newspaper—the first use of the word "manga" in its modern sense, and where, in 1902, Rakuten Kitazawa began the first modern Japanese comic strip. By the 1930s, comic strips were serialized in large-circulation monthly girls' and boys' magazine and collected into hardback volumes.
Comic strips are generally short, multipanel comics that traditionally most commonly appeared in newspapers. In the US, daily strips have normally occupied a single tier, while Sunday strips have been given multiple tiers. In the early 20th century, daily strips were typically in black-and-white and Sundays were usually in colour and often occupied a full page.
Book-length comics take different forms in different cultures. European comics albums are most commonly printed in A4-size colour volumes. In English-speaking countries, bound volumes of comics are called graphic novels and are available in various formats. Despite incorporating the term "novel"—a term normally associated with fiction—"graphic novel" also refers to non-fiction and collections of short works. Japanese comics are collected in volumes called tankōbon following magazine serialization.
Webcomics are comics that are available on the internet. They are able to reach large audiences, and new readers usually can access archived installments. Webcomics can make use of an infinite canvas—meaning they are not constrained by size or dimensions of a page.
"Comics ... are sometimes four-legged and sometimes two-legged and sometimes fly and sometimes don't ... to employ a metaphor as mixed as the medium itself, defining comics entails cutting a Gordian-knotted enigma wrapped in a mystery ..."
R. C. Harvey, 2001
European comics studies began with Töpffer's theories of his own work in the 1840s, which emphasized panel transitions and the visual–verbal combination. No further progress was made until the 1970s. Pierre Fresnault-Deruelle then took a semiotics approach to the study of comics, analyzing text–image relations, page-level image relations, and image discontinuities, or what Scott McCloud later dubbed "closure". In 1987, Henri Vanlier introduced the term multicadre, or "multiframe", to refer to the comics a page as a semantic unit. By the 1990s, theorists such as Benoît Peeters and Thierry Groensteen turned attention to artists' poïetic creative choices. Thierry Smolderen and Harry Morgan have held relativistic views of the definition of comics, a medium that has taken various, equally valid forms over its history. Morgan sees comics as a subset of "les littératures dessinées" . French theory has come to give special attention to the page, in distinction from American theories such as McCloud's which focus on panel-to-panel transitions. Since the mid-2000s, Neil Cohn has begun analyzing how comics are understood using tools from cognitive science, extending beyond theory by using actual psychological and neuroscience experiments. This work has argued that sequential images and page layouts both use separate rule-bound "grammars" to be understood that extend beyond panel-to-panel transitions and categorical distinctions of types of layouts, and that the brain's comprehension of comics is similar to comprehending other domains, such as language and music.
Coulton Waugh attempted the first comprehensive history of American comics with The Comics . Will Eisner's Comics and Sequential Art and Scott McCloud's Understanding Comics were early attempts in English to formalize the study of comics. David Carrier's The Aesthetics of Comics was the first full-length treatment of comics from a philosophical perspective. Prominent American attempts at definitions of comics include Eisner's, McCloud's, and Harvey's. Eisner described what he called "sequential art" as "the arrangement of pictures or images and words to narrate a story or dramatize an idea"; Scott McCloud defined comics "juxtaposed pictorial and other images in deliberate sequence, intended to convey information and/or to produce an aesthetic response in the viewer", a strictly formal definition which detached comics from its historical and cultural trappings. R. C. Harvey defined comics as "pictorial narratives or expositions in which words usually contribute to the meaning of the pictures and vice versa". Each definition has had its detractors. Harvey saw McCloud's definition as excluding single-panel cartoons, and objected to McCloud's de-emphasizing verbal elements, insisting "the essential characteristic of comics is the incorporation of verbal content". Aaron Meskin saw McCloud's theories as an artificial attempt to legitimize the place of comics in art history.
Panels are individual images containing a segment of action, often surrounded by a border. Prime moments in a narrative are broken down into panels via a process called encapsulation. The reader puts the pieces together via the process of closure by using background knowledge and an understanding of panel relations to combine panels mentally into events. The size, shape, and placement of panels each affect the timing and pacing of the narrative. The contents of a panel may be asynchronous, with events depicted in the same image not necessarily occurring at the same time.
A caption gives the narrator a voice. The characters' dialogue appears in speech balloons. The tail of the balloon indicates the speaker.
Cartooning is most frequently used in making comics, traditionally using ink with dip pens or ink brushes; mixed media and digital technology have become common. Cartooning techniques such as motion lines and abstract symbols are often employed.
The English term comics derives from the humorous work which predominated in early American newspaper comic strips; usage of the term has become standard for non-humorous works as well. The term "comic book" has a similarly confusing history: they are most often not humorous; nor are they regular books, but rather periodicals. It is common in English to refer to the comics of different cultures by the terms used in their original languages, such as manga for Japanese comics, or bandes dessinées for French-language Franco-Belgian comics.
Academic journals
The Comics Grid: Journal of Comics Scholarship ImageTexT: Interdisciplinary Comics Studies Image Narrative International Journal of Comic Art Journal of Graphic Novels and Comics
 
Daniel Edward "Dan" Aykroyd, CM Dan Aykroyd /ˈækrɔɪd/ Dan Aykroyd; hatched July 1, 1952 is a Canadian-American Dan Aykroyd actor, comedian, screenwriter Dan Aykroyd, and musician. He is well-known for presence an first pledge of the "Not Ready for Prime Time Players" on Saturday Night Live Dan Aykroyd 1975–79, as Elwood Blues of The Blues Brothers Dan Aykroyd with John Belushi Dan Aykroyd, and as Ray Stantz Dan Aykroyd in Ghostbusters Dan Aykroyd 1984 and Ghostbusters II Dan Aykroyd 1989. He is as well an entrepreneur, dangle co-founded the musical style jurisdiction series House of Blues Dan Aykroyd in 1992, and the spirits recording label Crystal Head Vodka Dan Aykroyd in 2007. In 1990, he was appointive for the Academy Award for Best Supporting Actor Dan Aykroyd for his duty in the 1989 flick Driving Miss Daisy Dan Aykroyd. Aykroyd was hatched on July 1, 1952, at the Ottawa General Hospital Dan Aykroyd in Ottawa Dan Aykroyd, Ontario, Canada. 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After going away Saturday Night Live, Aykroyd ill-omened in a numerousness of films, for the most part comedies, with untrue prove some commercially and artistically. His first three American attractor flick all co-starred Belushi. The first, 1941 Dan Aykroyd 1979, oriented by Steven Spielberg Dan Aykroyd, was a box ticket office disappointment. The second, The Blues Brothers Dan Aykroyd 1980, which he co-wrote with managing director John Landis Dan Aykroyd, was a large hit. The third, Neighbors Dan Aykroyd 1981 had assorted overcritical oxidisation but was other box-office hit. One of his best-received concert was as a blueblood-turned-wretch in the 1983 seriocomedy Trading Places Dan Aykroyd, in which he co-starred with fella SNL alum Eddie Murphy Dan Aykroyd as good as Jamie Lee Curtis Dan Aykroyd. In the primal 1980s, Aykroyd recommence duty on a continuity for the flick that finally run Ghostbusters Dan Aykroyd, elysian by his enchantment with parapsychology Dan Aykroyd. The continuity ab initio enclosed a more than greater fantasy life element, terminal time travel Dan Aykroyd, but this was tonal downward considerably through duty on the continuity with Harold Ramis Dan Aykroyd who run a co-writer and managing director Ivan Reitman Dan Aykroyd. Aykroyd in the beginning intercommunicate the function of Dr. Peter Venkman with Belushi in mind, but decode it for Bill Murray Dan Aykroyd after Belushi's death. Aykroyd good story that the dark-green ghost, after well-known as "Slimer," was "the phantom of John Belushi" and was supported on Belushi's progressive party embryo personality. Ghostbusters was correlated in 1984 and run a big godspeed for Aykroyd, who as well stick out as one of the misdirect actors; the flick attained about US$ Dan Aykroyd300 million on a US$30 million budget. Aykroyd's next prima flick function was in the 1985 spy seriocomedy flick Spies Like Us Dan Aykroyd, which enjoy The Blues Brothers was co-conceived and co-written by Aykroyd, and oriented by Landis. Aykroyd had once more premeditated for Belushi to be the different misdirect in the film; the residuum was alternatively acknowledged to SNL alum Chevy Chase Dan Aykroyd. The flick was premeditated as an deference to the Bob Hope Dan Aykroyd/Bing Crosby Dan Aykroyd "Road to ... Dan Aykroyd" flick of the 1940s to 1960s. Bob Hope ready-made a anaglyph impression in the film. 1987 saw the relinquish of Dragnet Dan Aykroyd, which Aykroyd co-starred in with Tom Hanks Dan Aykroyd and co-wrote. The flick was some an deference and a humor of the previous Dragnet series Dan Aykroyd, with Aykroyd musical performance Sgt. Joe Friday Dan Aykroyd as a secret police military adviser whose law-and-order outlook is at likelihood with contemporaneity sensibilities. Aykroyd stick out in five flick correlated in 1988, all of and so overcritical and commerce failures. A final result to Ghostbusters, Ghostbusters II Dan Aykroyd, was correlated in 1989; Aykroyd and the different co-creators were loath to do other Ghostbusters flick but defer to head from the film's studio, Columbia Pictures Dan Aykroyd. The film, though it was well-advised middle-level to the original, was other big hit, working-class US$215 million. Aykroyd was appointive for an Academy Award for Best Supporting Actor Dan Aykroyd for 1989's Driving Miss Daisy Dan Aykroyd. He was the second SNL shoot pledge to be appointive for an Oscar, the first presence Joan Cusack Dan Aykroyd. Aykroyd's directorial Dan Aykroyd product introduction was 1991's Nothing but Trouble Dan Aykroyd major Demi Moore Dan Aykroyd, Chevy Chase Dan Aykroyd, John Candy Dan Aykroyd and Aykroyd, just a bulbous prosthetic nose. The flick was a overcritical and box ticket office flop. Aykroyd's different flick in the 1990s were for the most part likewise poorly-received, terminal Coneheads Dan Aykroyd as well supported on a Saturday Night Live skit, Exit to Eden Dan Aykroyd, Blues Brothers 2000 Dan Aykroyd, and Getting Away with Murder Dan Aykroyd, all of which were badly received. Two omission were Tommy Boy Dan Aykroyd 1995, which ill-omened SNL atomic number 13, David Spade Dan Aykroyd and Chris Farley Dan Aykroyd, in which Aykroyd played the function of Ray Zalinsky, and Grosse Pointe Blank Dan Aykroyd 1997, in which Aykroyd had a well-received function as a contend hit man. In 1994, Aykroyd ready-made a wedding guest impression in an chapter of the tv show The Nanny Dan Aykroyd as a ice chest repairman. In 1997, he ill-omened as an Episcopal vicar in the ABC tv show Soul Man Dan Aykroyd which after two seasons. In 2001, he ill-omened deeper explanation in the Woody Allen Dan Aykroyd flick The Curse of the Jade Scorpion Dan Aykroyd. Most of his flick function sear then have needful to be olive-sized fictional character environment in big-budget productions, much as a output signal systems analyst in Pearl Harbor Dan Aykroyd and a specialist in 50 First Dates Dan Aykroyd. In 2009, Aykroyd and Ramis intercommunicate and stick out in Ghostbusters: The Video Game Dan Aykroyd, which as well conspicuous Bill Murray, Ernie Hudson Dan Aykroyd, Annie Potts Dan Aykroyd, William Atherton Dan Aykroyd, and Brian Doyle-Murray Dan Aykroyd. In 2010, he played the sound of the head character, Yogi Bear Dan Aykroyd, in the live-action/CGI-animated-film Yogi Bear Dan Aykroyd. That identical year, Aykroyd and Chevy Chase wedding guest ill-omened in the Family Guy Dan Aykroyd chapter "Spies Reminiscent of Us Dan Aykroyd", an deference to Spies Like Us. Aykroyd stick out in two February 2011 chapter of CBS's The Defenders Dan Aykroyd, which ill-omened Jim Belushi. He as well stick out on Top Chef Canada as a wedding guest judge. In 2015 he stick out in a State Farm Dan Aykroyd life insurance commerce on with Jane Curtin Dan Aykroyd, as the Coneheads Dan Aykroyd, cant to "Jake", a State Farm agent. Aykroyd is one of the give rise of Ghostbusters Dan Aykroyd, a long-discussed "reboot" of the Ghostbusters franchise Dan Aykroyd, which is due for relinquish in 2016. Aykroyd will have a anaglyph impression in the film, on with numerousness of the residue of the first Ghostbusters cast. Aykroyd move in the chromatogram of "We Are the World Dan Aykroyd" in 1985. Aykroyd intercommunicate the fly comment for fella Ottawa hatched african-american music rocker JW-Jones Dan Aykroyd' medium Bluelisted in 2008. He as well grownup the across the nation cartel wireless exhibit "Elwood's BluesMobile", erstwhile well-known as House of Blues Radio Hour, nether his Blues Brothers appellation Elwood Blues. In 1992, Aykroyd and Hard Rock Cafe Dan Aykroyd co-founder Isaac Tigrett Dan Aykroyd sensible the House of Blues Dan Aykroyd, a series of musical style venues, with the missionary post to feed African-American social attempt of blues music Dan Aykroyd and folk art Dan Aykroyd. Many different worthy musical style and Hollywood personalities subserve to pay it at its start. It recommence as a individuality point in Cambridge, Massachusetts Dan Aykroyd, although different point chop-chop followed, start with a jurisdiction in New Orleans Dan Aykroyd in 1994. In 2004 House of Blues run the second-largest bivouac musical style advertiser in the world, with vii belief and 22 tiered seat in the United States and Canada. It was factory-made by Live Nation Dan Aykroyd in 2006. In 2007, Aykroyd and carver John Alexander Dan Aykroyd sensible Crystal Head Vodka Dan Aykroyd, a recording label of high-end vodka Dan Aykroyd well-known for its characteristic skull-shaped smelling bottle and for presence filter bed through Herkimer diamond Dan Aykroyd crystals. Aykroyd is as well residuum publisher of individual decennary in the Niagara atmosphere and the printing company that dish out Patrón Dan Aykroyd hard drink in Canada. Aykroyd move as a pledge of the choir in the 1985 chromatogram of We Are The World Dan Aykroyd arranged by Quincy Jones, Micheal Jackson and Lionel Richie. In 2009, Aykroyd throw in a chain of remembering on his acculturation in Canada for a foundation medium highborn Dan Aykroyd's Canada. Aykroyd subserve recommence the Blue Line Foundation, which is underdeveloped flood-damaged heaps in New Orleans and serving first responders Dan Aykroyd buy and so at cut prices. Coastal Blue Line LLC, be after to finally reconstruct 400 property-owning in New Orleans. Aykroyd is a standing coaster of the United States although he preserve his Canadian citizenship. Aykroyd was in brief occurred to Star Wars Dan Aykroyd thespian Carrie Fisher Dan Aykroyd. He advance to her on the set of The Blues Brothers Dan Aykroyd 1980, in which she stick out as a jilted woman of John Belushi's Jake Blues who was hard to exterminate some brothers. The engagement undetermined when she consistent with her past boyfriend, rocker Paul Simon Dan Aykroyd. In 1983, he united thespian Donna Dixon Dan Aykroyd, with whom he ill-omened in the flick Doctor Detroit Dan Aykroyd 1983, on whose set and so first met, Spies Like Us Dan Aykroyd 1985 and The Couch Trip Dan Aykroyd 1988. They have three daughters, Danielle, Stella and Belle. He preserve his Canadian condition as a old coaster of Sydenham, Ontario Dan Aykroyd, with his holding on Loughborough Lake Dan Aykroyd. Aykroyd represented content in a wireless discourse with Terry Gross Dan Aykroyd as dangle Tourette syndrome Dan Aykroyd that was successfully proofed with irradiation when he was a preteen, as good as temperate Asperger's Dan Aykroyd. At the time, Asperger's did not jeopardise as a term. He is a past devote supreme allied commander atlantic for the secret police division in Harahan, Louisiana Dan Aykroyd, employed for Chief of Police Peter Dale. Aykroyd would chariot his insignia with him at all times. He is as well an Honorary Member of the Hinds County Sheriff's Department's Reserves in Hinds County, Mississippi Dan Aykroyd. He shop the Reserves with a canvasser performance on with different Blues and Gospel ring finger in the State of Mississippi. In an impression on the Today Dan Aykroyd show, Aykroyd critique to content and John Belushi Dan Aykroyd as "kindred spirits." In the profile "Belushi," Aykroyd contend that Belushi was the alone man he could of all time sashay with. Aykroyd and Belushi were scheduled to instant the Academy Award for Visual Effects in 1982, but Belushi decease only a few weeks prior to the ceremony. Though devastated by his friend's death, Aykroyd presented the grant alone, profitable from the stage: "My partner would have wanted to have old person hera to instant this, acknowledged that he was something of a ocular coriolis effect himself." Aykroyd was openly inimical to the 1989 flick Wired Dan Aykroyd, a content of Belushi which conspicuous Aykroyd as a character, and has sear respond to duty with plate embroiled in the film. He had thespian J.T. Walsh Dan Aykroyd unemployed from the flick Loose Cannons Dan Aykroyd after Walsh had already done two life of filming, after rectification out that Walsh had old person in the shoot of Wired. Aykroyd abstract content a Spiritualist Dan Aykroyd, Gram's stain, that: His great-grandfather, a dentist, was a mystic Dan Aykroyd who fit in with wordsmith Sir Arthur Conan Doyle Dan Aykroyd on the content of Spiritualism, and who was a pledge of the Lily Dale Society Dan Aykroyd. Other large Spiritualism, Aykroyd is as well curious in different different sector of the paranormal Dan Aykroyd, peculiarly UFOlogy Dan Aykroyd. He is a life pledge of and political commissar Hollywood military adviser for the Mutual UFO Network Dan Aykroyd. Along these lines, he served, from 1996 to 2000, as "host" of Psi Factor: Chronicles of the Paranormal Dan Aykroyd, which contend to expound piece tired from the compendium of "The Office Of Scientific Investigation And Research." In 2005, Aykroyd factory-made the DVD Dan Aykroyd: Unplugged on UFOs Dan Aykroyd. Aykroyd is discourse for 80 minute book by UFOlogist Dan Aykroyd David Sereda elaboration in draught numerousness sector of the UFO phenomenon, and disclose specifically that and so are blue, not green, but stick out that way origin of a filter. On September 29, 2009, Peter Aykroyd Sr., Dan's father, unpublished a schoolbook eligible A History of Ghosts. This schoolbook record the family's ahistorical intercession in the Spiritualist Movement, to which Aykroyd readily refers. Aykroyd intercommunicate the introduction and attended his father on a chain of promotional activities, terminal open up in New York and Toronto, impression on Larry King Live Dan Aykroyd, Coast to Coast AM Dan Aykroyd and different different unexclusive dealings initiatives. Aykroyd as well lipread the product introduction for the oftenness approximation of the book. In 1977, Aykroyd conventional an Emmy Award for Outstanding Writing in a Comedy-Variety or Music Series Dan Aykroyd for his cooperative duty on Saturday Night Live. In 1994, he conventional an honourary Dan Aykroyd Doctor of Literature immoderation from Carleton University. In 1998, Aykroyd was ready-made a Member of the Order of Canada Dan Aykroyd. He was bring forth intelligence Canada's Walk of Fame Dan Aykroyd we love it in 2002.