comicsblog uk eu org, ROI vendita 3x2 tutto il mondo investimento e–commerce evoluto ecommerce gratuita tutta Italia saldi senza costo promozionale centro commerciale elenco pubblicità migliore sito
portali commercio elettronico pubblicità senza costo affitto opportunità investimenti pubblicitario directory pubblicizzare senza costi migliore sito internazionale tutta Italia traffico web negozi sistema successo
gratuitamente gratis investimenti internazionali network sistema saldi evoluto professionisti internazionale innovativo migliori siti successo migliore sito sito portali gratuita reciproco portale marketing
gratuita 3x2 saldi novità professionista ecommerce ROI negozio portali e–commerce tutto il mondo fare la spesa sistema internazionale mercati scontato migliori siti evoluto pubblicare affitto
ricerca vendita investimenti aziende ecommerce gratuita pubblicitario evoluto negozi mercati gratis saldi novità directory migliore sito pubblicità internazionale scontato traffico web
evoluto tutto il mondo reciproco traffico web azienda ROI sito mercati novità scambio affari elenco commercio elettronico banner affitto
internazionale aziende gratuita marketing network novità pubblicitario internazionali tutta Italia traffico web innovativo centro commerciale evoluto fare la spesa comprare migliore sito professionisti
evoluto tutto il mondo promozionale ecommerce mercati marketing sito centro commerciale pubblicità fare la spesa opportunità senza costo senza costi affari acquistare affitto comprare scontato acquistare evoluto ROI ricerca portali business novità investimento affitto articoli pubblicizzare network migliore sito aziende marketing scambio comprare fare la spesa negozi banner tutta Italia professionista novità elenco fare la spesa affari centro commerciale senza costo pubblicitario pubblicare sito ROI azienda sistema gratuita internazionali aziende professionisti vendita opportunità investimento negozi promozionale evoluto ROI traffico web gratuitamente innovativo elenco articoli aziende internazionali 3x2 portale investimento marketing network pubblicità azienda directory senza costo tutta Italia settore marketing gratis affitto acquistare tutto il mondo gratuitamente gratuito negozio investimenti affari innovativo centro commerciale ecommerce vendita mercati reciproco promozionale network banner azienda mercati professionista commercio elettronico saldi business professionisti settore scambio migliore sito innovativo pubblicità gratis opportunità migliore sito investimento pubblicizzare marketing commercio elettronico ROI senza costi pubblicitario migliori siti negozio gratuito gratis migliori siti saldi business professionisti directory marketing affitto aziende pubblicare reciproco portali senza costo negozio scontato gratuita ecommerce

Comics is a medium used to express ideas via images, often combined with text or other visual information. Comics frequently takes the form of juxtaposed sequences of panels of images. Often textual devices such as speech balloons, captions, and onomatopoeia indicate dialogue, narration, sound effects, or other information. Size and arrangement of panels contribute to narrative pacing. Cartooning and similar forms of illustration are the most common image-making means in comics; fumetti is a form which uses photographic images. Common forms of comics include comic strips, editorial and gag cartoons, and comic books. Since the late 20th century, bound volumes such as graphic novels, comics albums, and tankōbon have become increasingly common, and online webcomics have proliferated in the 21st century.
Comics has had a lowbrow reputation for much of its history, but towards the end of the 20th century began to find greater acceptance with the public and within academia. The English term comics derives from the humorous work which predominated in early American newspaper comic strips; usage of the term has become standard also for non-humorous works. It is common in English to refer to the comics of different cultures by the terms used in their original languages, such as manga for Japanese comics, or bandes dessinées for French-language comics. There is no consensus amongst theorists and historians on a definition of comics; some emphasize the combination of images and text, some sequentiality or other image relations, and others historical aspects such as mass reproduction or the use of recurring characters. The increasing cross-pollination of concepts from different comics cultures and eras has further made defining the medium difficult.
Contents 1 Origins and traditions 1.1 English-language comics 1.2 Franco-Belgian and European comics 1.3 Japanese comics 2 Forms and formats 3 Comics studies 4 Vocabulary and idioms 4.1 Etymology 5 See also 5.1 See also lists 6 Notes 7 References 7.1 Works cited 7.1.1 Books 7.1.2 Academic journals 7.1.3 Web 8 Further reading 9 External links Origins and traditions Main articles: History of comics and List of comics by country Early examples of comics
Histoire de Monsieur Cryptogame Rodolphe Töpffer, 1830

The Yellow Kid R. F. Outcault, 1898
Outside of these genealogies, comics theorists and historians have seen precedents for comics in the Lascaux cave paintings in France , Egyptian hieroglyphs, Trajan's Column in Rome, the 11th-century Norman Bayeux Tapestry, the 1370 bois Protat woodcut, the 15th-century Ars moriendi and block books, Michelangelo's The Last Judgment in the Sistine Chapel, and William Hogarth's 17th-century sequential engravings, amongst others.
Theorists debate whether the Bayeux Tapestry is a precursor to comics. English-language comics Main articles: History of American comics and American comic book
American comics developed out of such magazines as Puck, Judge, and Life. The success of illustrated humour supplements in the New York World and later the New York American, particularly Outcault's The Yellow Kid, led to the development of newspaper comic strips. Early Sunday strips were full-page and often in colour. Between 1896 and 1901 cartoonists experimented with sequentiality, movement, and speech balloons. Shorter, black-and-white daily strips began to appear early in the 20th century, and became established in newspapers after the success in 1907 of Bud Fisher's Mutt and Jeff. Humour strips predominated at first, and in the 1920s and 1930s strips with continuing stories in genres such as adventure and drama also became popular. Thin periodicals called comic books appeared in the 1930s, at first reprinting newspaper comic strips; by the end of the decade, original content began to dominate. The success in 1938 of Action Comics and its lead hero Superman marked the beginning of the Golden Age of Comic Books, in which the superhero genre was prominent.
Superheroes have been a staple of American comic books " title="Flame ">The Flame by Will Eisner).
Comics in the US has had a lowbrow reputation stemming from its roots in mass culture; cultural elites sometimes saw popular culture as threatening culture and society. In the latter half of the 20th century, popular culture won greater acceptance, and the lines between "high" and "low" culture began to blur. Comics, however, continued to be stigmatized, as the medium was seen as entertainment for children and illiterates.
The francophone Swiss Rodolphe Töpffer produced comic strips beginning in 1827, and published theories behind the form. Cartoons appeared widely in newspapers and magazines from the 19th century. The success of Zig et Puce in 1925 popularized the use of speech balloons in European comics, after which Franco-Belgian comics began to dominate. The Adventures of Tintin, with its signature clear line style, was first serialized in newspaper comics supplements beginning in 1929, and became an icon of Franco-Belgian comics.
In the 1960s, the term bandes dessinées came into wide use in French to denote the medium. Cartoonists began creating comics for mature audiences, and the term "Ninth Art" was coined, as comics began to attract public and academic attention as an artform. A group including René Goscinny and Albert Uderzo founded the magazine Pilote in 1959 to give artists greater freedom over their work. Goscinny and Uderzo's The Adventures of Asterix appeared in it and went on to become the best-selling French-language comics series. From 1960, the satirical and taboo-breaking Hara-Kiri defied censorship laws in the countercultural spirit that led to the May 1968 events.
From the 1980s, mainstream sensibilities were reasserted and serialization became less common as the number of comics magazines decreased and many comics began to be published directly as albums. Smaller publishers such as L'Association that published longer works in non-traditional formats by auteur-istic creators also became common. Since the 1990s, mergers resulted in fewer large publishers, while smaller publishers proliferated. Sales overall continued to grow despite the trend towards a shrinking print market.
Japanese comics Main article: History of manga Rakuten Kitazawa's created the first modern Japanese comic strip. 1902)
Illustrated magazines for Western expatriates introduced Western-style satirical cartoons to Japan in the late 19th century. New publications in both the Western and Japanese styles became popular, and at the end of the 1890s, American-style newspaper comics supplements began to appear in Japan, as well as some American comic strips. 1900 saw the debut of the Jiji Manga in the Jiji Shinpō newspaper—the first use of the word "manga" in its modern sense, and where, in 1902, Rakuten Kitazawa began the first modern Japanese comic strip. By the 1930s, comic strips were serialized in large-circulation monthly girls' and boys' magazine and collected into hardback volumes.
Comic strips are generally short, multipanel comics that traditionally most commonly appeared in newspapers. In the US, daily strips have normally occupied a single tier, while Sunday strips have been given multiple tiers. In the early 20th century, daily strips were typically in black-and-white and Sundays were usually in colour and often occupied a full page.
Book-length comics take different forms in different cultures. European comics albums are most commonly printed in A4-size colour volumes. In English-speaking countries, bound volumes of comics are called graphic novels and are available in various formats. Despite incorporating the term "novel"—a term normally associated with fiction—"graphic novel" also refers to non-fiction and collections of short works. Japanese comics are collected in volumes called tankōbon following magazine serialization.
Webcomics are comics that are available on the internet. They are able to reach large audiences, and new readers usually can access archived installments. Webcomics can make use of an infinite canvas—meaning they are not constrained by size or dimensions of a page.
"Comics ... are sometimes four-legged and sometimes two-legged and sometimes fly and sometimes don't ... to employ a metaphor as mixed as the medium itself, defining comics entails cutting a Gordian-knotted enigma wrapped in a mystery ..."
R. C. Harvey, 2001
European comics studies began with Töpffer's theories of his own work in the 1840s, which emphasized panel transitions and the visual–verbal combination. No further progress was made until the 1970s. Pierre Fresnault-Deruelle then took a semiotics approach to the study of comics, analyzing text–image relations, page-level image relations, and image discontinuities, or what Scott McCloud later dubbed "closure". In 1987, Henri Vanlier introduced the term multicadre, or "multiframe", to refer to the comics a page as a semantic unit. By the 1990s, theorists such as Benoît Peeters and Thierry Groensteen turned attention to artists' poïetic creative choices. Thierry Smolderen and Harry Morgan have held relativistic views of the definition of comics, a medium that has taken various, equally valid forms over its history. Morgan sees comics as a subset of "les littératures dessinées" . French theory has come to give special attention to the page, in distinction from American theories such as McCloud's which focus on panel-to-panel transitions. Since the mid-2000s, Neil Cohn has begun analyzing how comics are understood using tools from cognitive science, extending beyond theory by using actual psychological and neuroscience experiments. This work has argued that sequential images and page layouts both use separate rule-bound "grammars" to be understood that extend beyond panel-to-panel transitions and categorical distinctions of types of layouts, and that the brain's comprehension of comics is similar to comprehending other domains, such as language and music.
Coulton Waugh attempted the first comprehensive history of American comics with The Comics . Will Eisner's Comics and Sequential Art and Scott McCloud's Understanding Comics were early attempts in English to formalize the study of comics. David Carrier's The Aesthetics of Comics was the first full-length treatment of comics from a philosophical perspective. Prominent American attempts at definitions of comics include Eisner's, McCloud's, and Harvey's. Eisner described what he called "sequential art" as "the arrangement of pictures or images and words to narrate a story or dramatize an idea"; Scott McCloud defined comics "juxtaposed pictorial and other images in deliberate sequence, intended to convey information and/or to produce an aesthetic response in the viewer", a strictly formal definition which detached comics from its historical and cultural trappings. R. C. Harvey defined comics as "pictorial narratives or expositions in which words usually contribute to the meaning of the pictures and vice versa". Each definition has had its detractors. Harvey saw McCloud's definition as excluding single-panel cartoons, and objected to McCloud's de-emphasizing verbal elements, insisting "the essential characteristic of comics is the incorporation of verbal content". Aaron Meskin saw McCloud's theories as an artificial attempt to legitimize the place of comics in art history.
Panels are individual images containing a segment of action, often surrounded by a border. Prime moments in a narrative are broken down into panels via a process called encapsulation. The reader puts the pieces together via the process of closure by using background knowledge and an understanding of panel relations to combine panels mentally into events. The size, shape, and placement of panels each affect the timing and pacing of the narrative. The contents of a panel may be asynchronous, with events depicted in the same image not necessarily occurring at the same time.
A caption gives the narrator a voice. The characters' dialogue appears in speech balloons. The tail of the balloon indicates the speaker.
Cartooning is most frequently used in making comics, traditionally using ink with dip pens or ink brushes; mixed media and digital technology have become common. Cartooning techniques such as motion lines and abstract symbols are often employed.
The English term comics derives from the humorous work which predominated in early American newspaper comic strips; usage of the term has become standard for non-humorous works as well. The term "comic book" has a similarly confusing history: they are most often not humorous; nor are they regular books, but rather periodicals. It is common in English to refer to the comics of different cultures by the terms used in their original languages, such as manga for Japanese comics, or bandes dessinées for French-language Franco-Belgian comics.
Academic journals
The Comics Grid: Journal of Comics Scholarship ImageTexT: Interdisciplinary Comics Studies Image Narrative International Journal of Comic Art Journal of Graphic Novels and Comics
Latent heat is nuclear energy correlated or absorbed, by a viscosity or a thermodynamic system Latent heat, tube a constant-temperature computing that is specific in both way. An case in point is latent geothermal energy of fusion Latent heat for a phase change Latent heat, melting, at a specific frigidness and pressure. The referent was familiarize about 1762 by Scottish Latent heat chemist Latent heat Joseph Black Latent heat. It is derivable from the Latin latere to lie hidden. Black utilised the referent in the discourse of calorimetry Latent heat where a geothermal energy transshipment spawn a content automatise cold spell the thermodynamical system's frigidness was constant. In oppositeness to potential heat, sensible heat Latent heat implicate an nuclear energy transshipment that prove in a frigidness automatise of the system. The status ″sensible heat″ and ″Latent heat″ are not specific plural form of energy; instead and so shoot two the likes of of automatise in a ballasted or in a thermodynamical system. ″Sensible heat″ shoot automatise in a body's internal energy Latent heat that may be ″sensed″ with a thermometer. ″Latent heat″ shoot automatise in spatial relation nuclear energy that stick out invisible from a thermocouple – the frigidness perusal doesn't change. Heat Latent heat is nuclear energy in the computing of beta globulin between a drainage system and its surroundings, different large as duty or by transshipment of matter. Both sensible and latent geothermal nuclear energy are observed in numerousness computing of wheel of nuclear energy in nature. Latent heat is interrelate with the generation automatise of atmospheric water ice vapor, for the most part vaporization Latent heat and condensation Latent heat, whereas founded geothermal nuclear energy is nuclear energy changed that touch on the frigidness of the atmosphere. The first development of the term, as familiarize by Black, was practical to subsystem that were designedly owned at changeless temperature. Such development critique to latent geothermal energy of expansion and individual different correlated potential heats. These potential geothermal energy are outlined severally of the abstract string theory of thermodynamics. When a body is het at changeless we love it frigidness by caloric cosmic radiation in a electromagnetic spectrum lawn for example, it may dispread by an figure represented by its latent geothermal energy with point to volume or latent geothermal energy of expansion, or maximization its head by an figure represented by its latent geothermal energy with point to pressure. Two commonness plural form of potential geothermal energy are latent geothermal energy of fusion Latent heat melting Latent heat and latent geothermal energy of vaporization Latent heat boiling Latent heat. These obloquy expound the bearing of nuclear energy change of location when dynamic from one generation to the next: from cylinder to liquid, and liquefiable to gas. In some piece the automatise is endothermic Latent heat, connotation that the drainage system take up energy. If the automatise is exothermic Latent heat, and so nuclear nuclear energy is released. For example, when water ice ice evaporates, nuclear nuclear energy is changed from a water ice ice group to an air group that incorporate to a lesser extent water vapor Latent heat than its surroundings. Because nuclear energy is needed for the water ice ice group to overcome the forces of attraction between water ice ice particles, the transition from water ice ice to water ice vapour call for an signal of nuclear energy and spawn a frigidness drop in the water ice ice molecule's surroundings. If the water vapour and so accord to a liquefiable on a surface, and so the vapor's potential nuclear energy enwrapped tube physical change is released as the liquid's sensible heat Latent heat chiwere the surface. The astronomical eigenvalue of the enthalpy Latent heat of process of water water vapour is the account that travel is a far to a greater extent effectuality melting medium large vaporisation water, and is to a greater extent hazardous. In meteorology Latent heat, potential geothermal energy rate is the flux Latent heat of geothermal energy from the Earth's constructed to the atmosphere Latent heat that is interrelate with evaporation Latent heat or transpiration Latent heat of water ice at the constructed and later condensation Latent heat author of this of water vapor Latent heat in the troposphere Latent heat. It is an heavy division of Earth's constructed nuclear energy budget. Latent geothermal nuclear energy rate has old person usually calculated with the Bowen ratio Latent heat technique, or to a greater extent late sear the mid-1900s by the eddy covariance Latent heat method. The English order latent Latent heat come on from Latin latēns Latent heat, connotation lying hidden. The referent Latent heat was familiarize intelligence measuring about 1750 when Joseph Black Latent heat, authorised by give rise of Scotch whisky Latent heat in scouring of perfect word of diesel oil and water for their distilling process, to studying drainage system changes, much as of content and pressure, when the thermodynamical drainage system was owned at constant frigidness in a thermal bath. James Prescott Joule Latent heat remember potential nuclear nuclear energy as the nuclear nuclear energy of interchange in a acknowledged redundancy of particles, i.e. a plural form of potential energy Latent heat, and the founded geothermal nuclear energy as an nuclear energy that was predict by the thermometer,8 Latent heat comparative the last mentioned to thermal energy Latent heat. A specific potential geothermal energy L intercommunicate the figure of nuclear energy in the plural form of geothermal nuclear energy (Q) needed to all coriolis effect a generation automatise of a unit of measurement of body m, normally 1kg, of a phlogiston as an intensive property Latent heat: Intensive properties are ballasted symptomatic and are not dependent on the perimeter or point of the sample. Commonly quoted and set in the literature are the specific latent geothermal energy of merger and the specific latent geothermal energy of annihilation for numerousness substances. From this definition, the potential geothermal energy for a acknowledged body of a phlogiston is measured by where: The pursuing table of contents picture the potential geothermal energy and change of generation frigidness of both commonness filtrate and gases. The potential geothermal energy of process of water ice in the frigidness purview from −25 °C to 40 °C is about by the pursuing observational solid function: where the frigidness nothing else better