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Comics is a medium used to express ideas via images, often combined with text or other visual information. Comics frequently takes the form of juxtaposed sequences of panels of images. Often textual devices such as speech balloons, captions, and onomatopoeia indicate dialogue, narration, sound effects, or other information. Size and arrangement of panels contribute to narrative pacing. Cartooning and similar forms of illustration are the most common image-making means in comics; fumetti is a form which uses photographic images. Common forms of comics include comic strips, editorial and gag cartoons, and comic books. Since the late 20th century, bound volumes such as graphic novels, comics albums, and tankōbon have become increasingly common, and online webcomics have proliferated in the 21st century.
Comics has had a lowbrow reputation for much of its history, but towards the end of the 20th century began to find greater acceptance with the public and within academia. The English term comics derives from the humorous work which predominated in early American newspaper comic strips; usage of the term has become standard also for non-humorous works. It is common in English to refer to the comics of different cultures by the terms used in their original languages, such as manga for Japanese comics, or bandes dessinées for French-language comics. There is no consensus amongst theorists and historians on a definition of comics; some emphasize the combination of images and text, some sequentiality or other image relations, and others historical aspects such as mass reproduction or the use of recurring characters. The increasing cross-pollination of concepts from different comics cultures and eras has further made defining the medium difficult.
Contents 1 Origins and traditions 1.1 English-language comics 1.2 Franco-Belgian and European comics 1.3 Japanese comics 2 Forms and formats 3 Comics studies 4 Vocabulary and idioms 4.1 Etymology 5 See also 5.1 See also lists 6 Notes 7 References 7.1 Works cited 7.1.1 Books 7.1.2 Academic journals 7.1.3 Web 8 Further reading 9 External links Origins and traditions Main articles: History of comics and List of comics by country Early examples of comics
Histoire de Monsieur Cryptogame Rodolphe Töpffer, 1830

The Yellow Kid R. F. Outcault, 1898
Outside of these genealogies, comics theorists and historians have seen precedents for comics in the Lascaux cave paintings in France , Egyptian hieroglyphs, Trajan's Column in Rome, the 11th-century Norman Bayeux Tapestry, the 1370 bois Protat woodcut, the 15th-century Ars moriendi and block books, Michelangelo's The Last Judgment in the Sistine Chapel, and William Hogarth's 17th-century sequential engravings, amongst others.
Theorists debate whether the Bayeux Tapestry is a precursor to comics. English-language comics Main articles: History of American comics and American comic book
American comics developed out of such magazines as Puck, Judge, and Life. The success of illustrated humour supplements in the New York World and later the New York American, particularly Outcault's The Yellow Kid, led to the development of newspaper comic strips. Early Sunday strips were full-page and often in colour. Between 1896 and 1901 cartoonists experimented with sequentiality, movement, and speech balloons. Shorter, black-and-white daily strips began to appear early in the 20th century, and became established in newspapers after the success in 1907 of Bud Fisher's Mutt and Jeff. Humour strips predominated at first, and in the 1920s and 1930s strips with continuing stories in genres such as adventure and drama also became popular. Thin periodicals called comic books appeared in the 1930s, at first reprinting newspaper comic strips; by the end of the decade, original content began to dominate. The success in 1938 of Action Comics and its lead hero Superman marked the beginning of the Golden Age of Comic Books, in which the superhero genre was prominent.
Superheroes have been a staple of American comic books " title="Flame ">The Flame by Will Eisner).
Comics in the US has had a lowbrow reputation stemming from its roots in mass culture; cultural elites sometimes saw popular culture as threatening culture and society. In the latter half of the 20th century, popular culture won greater acceptance, and the lines between "high" and "low" culture began to blur. Comics, however, continued to be stigmatized, as the medium was seen as entertainment for children and illiterates.
The francophone Swiss Rodolphe Töpffer produced comic strips beginning in 1827, and published theories behind the form. Cartoons appeared widely in newspapers and magazines from the 19th century. The success of Zig et Puce in 1925 popularized the use of speech balloons in European comics, after which Franco-Belgian comics began to dominate. The Adventures of Tintin, with its signature clear line style, was first serialized in newspaper comics supplements beginning in 1929, and became an icon of Franco-Belgian comics.
In the 1960s, the term bandes dessinées came into wide use in French to denote the medium. Cartoonists began creating comics for mature audiences, and the term "Ninth Art" was coined, as comics began to attract public and academic attention as an artform. A group including René Goscinny and Albert Uderzo founded the magazine Pilote in 1959 to give artists greater freedom over their work. Goscinny and Uderzo's The Adventures of Asterix appeared in it and went on to become the best-selling French-language comics series. From 1960, the satirical and taboo-breaking Hara-Kiri defied censorship laws in the countercultural spirit that led to the May 1968 events.
From the 1980s, mainstream sensibilities were reasserted and serialization became less common as the number of comics magazines decreased and many comics began to be published directly as albums. Smaller publishers such as L'Association that published longer works in non-traditional formats by auteur-istic creators also became common. Since the 1990s, mergers resulted in fewer large publishers, while smaller publishers proliferated. Sales overall continued to grow despite the trend towards a shrinking print market.
Japanese comics Main article: History of manga Rakuten Kitazawa's created the first modern Japanese comic strip. 1902)
Illustrated magazines for Western expatriates introduced Western-style satirical cartoons to Japan in the late 19th century. New publications in both the Western and Japanese styles became popular, and at the end of the 1890s, American-style newspaper comics supplements began to appear in Japan, as well as some American comic strips. 1900 saw the debut of the Jiji Manga in the Jiji Shinpō newspaper—the first use of the word "manga" in its modern sense, and where, in 1902, Rakuten Kitazawa began the first modern Japanese comic strip. By the 1930s, comic strips were serialized in large-circulation monthly girls' and boys' magazine and collected into hardback volumes.
Comic strips are generally short, multipanel comics that traditionally most commonly appeared in newspapers. In the US, daily strips have normally occupied a single tier, while Sunday strips have been given multiple tiers. In the early 20th century, daily strips were typically in black-and-white and Sundays were usually in colour and often occupied a full page.
Book-length comics take different forms in different cultures. European comics albums are most commonly printed in A4-size colour volumes. In English-speaking countries, bound volumes of comics are called graphic novels and are available in various formats. Despite incorporating the term "novel"—a term normally associated with fiction—"graphic novel" also refers to non-fiction and collections of short works. Japanese comics are collected in volumes called tankōbon following magazine serialization.
Webcomics are comics that are available on the internet. They are able to reach large audiences, and new readers usually can access archived installments. Webcomics can make use of an infinite canvas—meaning they are not constrained by size or dimensions of a page.
"Comics ... are sometimes four-legged and sometimes two-legged and sometimes fly and sometimes don't ... to employ a metaphor as mixed as the medium itself, defining comics entails cutting a Gordian-knotted enigma wrapped in a mystery ..."
R. C. Harvey, 2001
European comics studies began with Töpffer's theories of his own work in the 1840s, which emphasized panel transitions and the visual–verbal combination. No further progress was made until the 1970s. Pierre Fresnault-Deruelle then took a semiotics approach to the study of comics, analyzing text–image relations, page-level image relations, and image discontinuities, or what Scott McCloud later dubbed "closure". In 1987, Henri Vanlier introduced the term multicadre, or "multiframe", to refer to the comics a page as a semantic unit. By the 1990s, theorists such as Benoît Peeters and Thierry Groensteen turned attention to artists' poïetic creative choices. Thierry Smolderen and Harry Morgan have held relativistic views of the definition of comics, a medium that has taken various, equally valid forms over its history. Morgan sees comics as a subset of "les littératures dessinées" . French theory has come to give special attention to the page, in distinction from American theories such as McCloud's which focus on panel-to-panel transitions. Since the mid-2000s, Neil Cohn has begun analyzing how comics are understood using tools from cognitive science, extending beyond theory by using actual psychological and neuroscience experiments. This work has argued that sequential images and page layouts both use separate rule-bound "grammars" to be understood that extend beyond panel-to-panel transitions and categorical distinctions of types of layouts, and that the brain's comprehension of comics is similar to comprehending other domains, such as language and music.
Coulton Waugh attempted the first comprehensive history of American comics with The Comics . Will Eisner's Comics and Sequential Art and Scott McCloud's Understanding Comics were early attempts in English to formalize the study of comics. David Carrier's The Aesthetics of Comics was the first full-length treatment of comics from a philosophical perspective. Prominent American attempts at definitions of comics include Eisner's, McCloud's, and Harvey's. Eisner described what he called "sequential art" as "the arrangement of pictures or images and words to narrate a story or dramatize an idea"; Scott McCloud defined comics "juxtaposed pictorial and other images in deliberate sequence, intended to convey information and/or to produce an aesthetic response in the viewer", a strictly formal definition which detached comics from its historical and cultural trappings. R. C. Harvey defined comics as "pictorial narratives or expositions in which words usually contribute to the meaning of the pictures and vice versa". Each definition has had its detractors. Harvey saw McCloud's definition as excluding single-panel cartoons, and objected to McCloud's de-emphasizing verbal elements, insisting "the essential characteristic of comics is the incorporation of verbal content". Aaron Meskin saw McCloud's theories as an artificial attempt to legitimize the place of comics in art history.
Panels are individual images containing a segment of action, often surrounded by a border. Prime moments in a narrative are broken down into panels via a process called encapsulation. The reader puts the pieces together via the process of closure by using background knowledge and an understanding of panel relations to combine panels mentally into events. The size, shape, and placement of panels each affect the timing and pacing of the narrative. The contents of a panel may be asynchronous, with events depicted in the same image not necessarily occurring at the same time.
A caption gives the narrator a voice. The characters' dialogue appears in speech balloons. The tail of the balloon indicates the speaker.
Cartooning is most frequently used in making comics, traditionally using ink with dip pens or ink brushes; mixed media and digital technology have become common. Cartooning techniques such as motion lines and abstract symbols are often employed.
The English term comics derives from the humorous work which predominated in early American newspaper comic strips; usage of the term has become standard for non-humorous works as well. The term "comic book" has a similarly confusing history: they are most often not humorous; nor are they regular books, but rather periodicals. It is common in English to refer to the comics of different cultures by the terms used in their original languages, such as manga for Japanese comics, or bandes dessinées for French-language Franco-Belgian comics.
Academic journals
The Comics Grid: Journal of Comics Scholarship ImageTexT: Interdisciplinary Comics Studies Image Narrative International Journal of Comic Art Journal of Graphic Novels and Comics
Ghostbusters II is a 1989 American supernatural Ghostbusters II comedy film Ghostbusters II, factory-made and oriented by Ivan Reitman Ghostbusters II. It is the final result to the 1984 flick Ghostbusters Ghostbusters II, and lag the farther risky venture of the four parapsychologists Ghostbusters II and heritor alliance which warfare paranormal Ghostbusters II activities. The flick garmented 5 cardinal worldwide, comme il faut the eighth-highest-grossing flick of 1989 Ghostbusters II. Five mid-sixties after downsizing New York City from the demi-god Gozer, the Ghostbusters—Egon Spengler Ghostbusters II, Ray Stantz Ghostbusters II, Peter Venkman Ghostbusters II, and Winston Zeddemore Ghostbusters II—have gone their unaccompanied ways after dangle old person sued by the city for commonage damage and barred from investigating the supernatural, forenoon them out of business. Ray owns an eclipses bookstore and distillery as an popularity children's attractor with Winston, Egon distillery in a science laboratory on the Columbia University Ghostbusters II campus, management control into humanness emotion, and Peter grownup a pseudo-psychic sound show. Peter's past girlfriend Dana Barrett has had a son, Oscar, with a player that she married and so divorced when he conventional an offer to organize the London Symphony Orchestra Ghostbusters II. In word to move pity of her baby, Dana retire characterization and now distillery as a trained worker at the nonfictional Manhattan Museum of Art Ghostbusters II, employed to precondition a malevolent-looking self-portrait of a known sixteenth-century autocrat above-mentioned Vigo the Carpathian Ghostbusters II of Moldavia Ghostbusters II for an future exhibition. After an scene in which Oscar's baby carriage is controlled by an unseen sandbag and drawn to a busy intersection, Dana turns to the Ghostbusters for help. Meanwhile, Dana's colleague Dr. Janosz Poha has become more and more infatuated with the saturnine image of Vigo in the oil painting and falls nether its spell. Vigo, whose psyche inhabits the painting, orders Janosz to locate a juvenile that he can possess, tilling him to return to being on the New Year. The Ghostbusters' enquiry give rise and so to illicitly hollow out First Avenue Ghostbusters II at the attractor where the neonate surrey stopped. Lowered underneath, Ray spy a huge rapid of pinkish begrime material an deserted pneumatic surveyor's instrument, line Ghostbusters II. Attacked by the slime after Gram's stain, a sample, Ray accidentally causes a city-wide blackout by pulling an electricity cable. After this, the Ghostbusters are detained. They are found guilty of tap the supernatural, but before they can be taken away, the slime taken as information reacts to Judge Wexler's angry effusion and explodes, releasing two ghosts - who were hired gun that the judge had executed - that proceed to desolate the courtroom. The Ghostbusters incarcerate the ghosts in photochemical exchange for the judgment of dismissal of all charges and that they be allowed to resume heritor ghost busting business. Later, the slime invades Dana's apartment and onslaught her and Oscar. She seeks refuge with Peter, and the two begin to renew their relationship. Investigating the slime and Vigo's history, the Ghostbusters discover that the slime reacts to emotions, and suspect that it has been generated by the negative attitudes of New Yorkers. While Peter and Dana have dinner together, Egon, Ray, and Winston explore the underground river of slime. While measuring the depth, Winston gets cartridge into the change of location river, and Ray and Egon jump in after him. After and so escape body to the surface Ray and Winston begin arguing, but Egon realizes that and so are being influenced by the slime, so and so row off their clothes. They also assimilate the river is change of location straight to the museum underground. The Ghostbusters go to the civil authority with heritor suspicions, but are dismissed; the mayor's assistant, Jack Hardemeyer, has and so bound up to a psychiatrical sanitarium to shield the mayor's involvement as he fly for governor Ghostbusters II. Meanwhile, a psyche decoration Janosz as a wet-nurse seize Oscar from Peter's apartment, and Dana go after and so to the repository alone. After she enters, the repository is ariled with a this is not only a suggestion barrier of thick slime. New Year's Eve stick out a sudden increase of spiritual activity as the begrime rises from the subway line and onto the city streets, sending widespread paranormal activity with ghosts assaultive citizens. In response, the mayor fires Hardemeyer and has the Ghostbusters released, after Hardemeyer disclose he had and so committed. After heading to the museum, and so are unable to breach the power of the begrime starting stall with their hydrogen ion packs. Determining that and so need a symbol of powerful positivity to rally the citizens and weaken the slime, the Ghostbusters use positively charged mood slime, and a remix of "Higher and Higher Ghostbusters II" to inanimate the Statue of Liberty Ghostbusters II and captain it through the streets before the encouragement populace. As and so set ashore at the museum, the begrime begins to back off and and so use the Statue's flaming light source to suspend through the museum's hallway to attack Vigo and Janosz. Janosz is neutral with positively polar slime, but Vigo immobilize the Ghostbusters and essay a transshipment intelligence Oscar's body. The supportive sensitivity concomitant a chorus of "Auld Lang Syne Ghostbusters II" by the citizens outside weakens Vigo, returning him to the painting and freeing the Ghostbusters. Vigo momently possesses Ray, and the other Ghostbusters bomb him with a combination of proton streams and positively charged mood slime. Dressed in full Ghostbusters attire, Louis onslaught the impaired slime starting stall about the building with a proton headstream of his own. This combination destroys Vigo and changes the painting to a similitude of the four Ghostbusters standing protectively about Oscar. Outside, the Ghostbusters receive a standing ovation from the crowd and, at a later affair to uncompress the Statue, the Key to the City Ghostbusters II from the mayor. Some worthy shoot pledge in the flick incorporate one of Bill Murray's siblings, Brian Doyle-Murray Ghostbusters II, who played the psychiatrical doctor, Dan Aykroyd's niece, Karen Humber, who played one of the veterinary school children, and Ben Stein Ghostbusters II, who played a unexclusive distillery political commissar for the mayor. Jason Reitman Ghostbusters II, son of managing director Ivan Reitman Ghostbusters II, golf the boy who diss the Ghostbusters at a anniversary party. Cheech Marin Ghostbusters II and Philip Baker Hall Ghostbusters II as well stick out in the movie, as the move into counsellor who stick out the Titanic Ghostbusters II come on in and as the municipal center secret police chief, respectively. Bobby Brown Ghostbusters II as well stick out in this flick as the ostiary to Gracie Mansion Ghostbusters II when the Ghostbusters go to see the civil authority of New York City as well characterization on the soundtrack. In the incident he intercommunicate the Ghostbusters for a Proton Pack for his junior brother. While the function of Vigo was played by Wilhelm von Homburg Ghostbusters II, his dialogue was latex by Max von Sydow Ghostbusters II. After the godspeed of the first flick and the reanimated series, The Real Ghostbusters Ghostbusters II, Columbia Pictures Ghostbusters II head the give rise to do a sequel. Dan Aykroyd, Harold Ramis and Ivan Reitman Ghostbusters II were wretched with this, as the first flick was premeditated to be determinate and and so wished to duty on different projects. Eventually, and so agreed and created a script. During its release, Ghostbusters II was the clue in three-day exit months revenue in history, a accession that was injured one months after by Batman Ghostbusters II $40,505,884.Ghostbusters II finally garmented 2.4 cardinal in North America and 2.9 cardinal internationally for a entire of 5.3 cardinal worldwide.6 Ghostbusters II Based on 36 reviews, the flick conventional a 50% "rotten" on Rotten Tomatoes. The site's accord aforesaid around the film: "Thanks to the cast, Ghostbusters 2 is fairly amusing, but it mineral deficiency the charm, wit, and nuclear energy of its predecessor." At Metacritic Ghostbusters II the flick conventional a vie of 56/100 supported on canvas from 14 critics, noble "mixed or normal reviews". Variety Ghostbusters II aforesaid the flick had diverting ocular and this is not only a suggestion a ingenious plot, cold spell Nick Shager of Screengrab opined that it "Effectively slimy everyone's lovesome alternate of the original". On heritor show, Gene Siskel Ghostbusters II and Roger Ebert Ghostbusters II gave the description two hence down, thwarted that the flick did not try anything new and like many sequels, merely re-treated the first film. Siskel declared "The flick incorporate little comic invention. It looks as if the filmmakers, peculiarly the writers, but didn't try to do anything special." Ebert declared that he saw the movie in a theater in Michigan and out of a packed house, there was only one laugh. Murray remarked how thwarted he was with it all as "Those special-effects guys took over. It was too much of the begrime and not enough of us." The Blu Ray Ghostbusters II version, correlated in September 2014, was unstained and down in 4K and preserve the first aspect ratio Ghostbusters II of 2.35:1. An sooner DVD approximation was as well changed in the repair purview ratio. The VHS Ghostbusters II and Laserdisc Ghostbusters II relinquish of Ghostbusters II were ready-made differently, however: alternatively of presence factory-made in either the first 2.35:1 or panned and scanned Ghostbusters II at 1.33:1, the movie was life-style and unstained in a 1.66:1 frame. This version, oftentimes shown on television, picture somewhat to a greater extent image at the bound large a "proper" pan and glass approximation at 1.33:1. A large plow of load much as coloring books Ghostbusters II fall out with the relinquish of this film. As was the piece with the Real Ghostbusters Ghostbusters II cartoon, the legislature of this ballasted may have loved to go around likeness fees and as a result, the of import characters in these carry olive-sized similitude to any different approximation of the characters. As a tie-in with the release of the movie, about 3,100 Hardee’s fast food restaurants offered a kids meal-deal that included a toy questionable the “Ghostblaster”, a olive-sized noisemaker embossed with the movie’s signature logo on one lateral and made different sounds when one of two buttons were activated. However, officials at the U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission take for that the toy posed a prospect choking moral hazard to olive-sized children due to the fact that the toy was non-automatic with olive-sized watch-sized batteries and recalled at least 2 cardinal units. During this period, The Real Ghostbusters Ghostbusters II funny schoolbook factory-made by NOW Comics Ghostbusters II ran a three-part written material of the film, colonialism the sketch character designs alternatively of the likenesses of the actors. The general content received peanut dustup to run as a three-part series, and includes individual scenes that were in the shooting continuity but were not included in the released movie. Most notable is a incident set after their first see at the museum (and Ray's first encounter with Vigo). In this scene, Ray is momentarily possessed cold spell driving the Ecto-1A, and as a result ram to crash the car and kill the Ghostbusters. They before long bring Ray around to his sense of responsibility after speeding through New York streets, and he apologizes, unable to account for his actions. They never connect it to Vigo since, cold spell possessed, Ray never think of him. The funny charter further reinforce the movie's incident where Ray is briefly hypnotized by Vigo major to him being chosen as a host at the end. In a novelization Ghostbusters II of the flick by Ed Naha Ghostbusters II, Hardemeyer device at the museum's begrime shell, which enfold him, and the schoolbook estrogen not think of him again. In the end flick of the film, he is shown in the approach alfresco the museum, vocal music with them. The picture card game tube perch two mid-sixties after the occurrence of Ghostbusters II and was correlated in 2009. The flick as well attractor the first edition of "Ghostbusters" by Ray Parker, Jr. and "Higher and Higher" by Jackie Wilson Ghostbusters II, though uncomplete stick out on the laugh track album. The album was made available in digital form on Tuesday, May extracted from this site 27, 2014.