comicsblog uk eu org, directory pubblicitario pubblicizzare tutto il mondo migliore sito 3x2 affari investimenti banner evoluto negozi senza costi vendita portale opportunità professionista promozionale acquistare
traffico web articoli directory aziende network elenco ecommerce scontato e–commerce negozio portale tutto il mondo professionisti migliore sito portali senza costi banner fare la spesa centro commerciale azienda
pubblicizzare network pubblicare migliori siti affari commercio elettronico mercati business ricerca evoluto articoli gratuitamente directory tutto il mondo sistema banner opportunità
saldi fare la spesa negozio portali ricerca scontato centro commerciale investimenti portale reciproco investimento vendita banner tutta Italia traffico web
ecommerce investimento internazionali ricerca senza costo pubblicizzare novità professionista promozionale affari e–commerce pubblicare traffico web sito comprare scontato gratuita elenco evoluto pubblicità
settore senza costi network business gratuita articoli acquistare professionista scontato negozio tutta Italia negozi marketing affari investimenti
traffico web novità mercati ricerca saldi reciproco promozionale tutta Italia pubblicitario senza costo senza costi internazionali pubblicare professionisti portali innovativo aziende pubblicità comprare tutto il mondo gratuita
professionista senza costo scontato affari investimento gratuitamente opportunità network settore senza costi mercati e–commerce vendita sistema pubblicizzare negozio successo internazionali comprare reciproco azienda investimento sistema ecommerce traffico web portale affari gratuita ROI promozionale commercio elettronico migliori siti vendita sito pubblicità business professionista pubblicizzare novità portali novità promozionale network successo mercati internazionale investimento senza costo affitto pubblicità gratuita scontato internazionali e–commerce ecommerce investimento senza costi comprare tutto il mondo pubblicizzare network settore negozi scambio directory professionista internazionale promozionale fare la spesa evoluto comprare gratuita acquistare professionista affitto ecommerce pubblicare banner tutto il mondo pubblicità directory promozionale sito fare la spesa senza costo investimenti investimento gratuito articoli affitto gratis settore pubblicare investimento centro commerciale azienda gratuito gratuita pubblicizzare comprare network successo aziende vendita negozio scambio negozi scontato 3x2 articoli reciproco marketing promozionale internazionali successo e–commerce gratuitamente aziende comprare business novità vendita pubblicizzare promozionale ROI portali evoluto novità sito marketing professionista successo investimento sistema ecommerce portale
 
COMICS

Comics is a medium used to express ideas via images, often combined with text or other visual information. Comics frequently takes the form of juxtaposed sequences of panels of images. Often textual devices such as speech balloons, captions, and onomatopoeia indicate dialogue, narration, sound effects, or other information. Size and arrangement of panels contribute to narrative pacing. Cartooning and similar forms of illustration are the most common image-making means in comics; fumetti is a form which uses photographic images. Common forms of comics include comic strips, editorial and gag cartoons, and comic books. Since the late 20th century, bound volumes such as graphic novels, comics albums, and tankōbon have become increasingly common, and online webcomics have proliferated in the 21st century.
Comics has had a lowbrow reputation for much of its history, but towards the end of the 20th century began to find greater acceptance with the public and within academia. The English term comics derives from the humorous work which predominated in early American newspaper comic strips; usage of the term has become standard also for non-humorous works. It is common in English to refer to the comics of different cultures by the terms used in their original languages, such as manga for Japanese comics, or bandes dessinées for French-language comics. There is no consensus amongst theorists and historians on a definition of comics; some emphasize the combination of images and text, some sequentiality or other image relations, and others historical aspects such as mass reproduction or the use of recurring characters. The increasing cross-pollination of concepts from different comics cultures and eras has further made defining the medium difficult.
Contents 1 Origins and traditions 1.1 English-language comics 1.2 Franco-Belgian and European comics 1.3 Japanese comics 2 Forms and formats 3 Comics studies 4 Vocabulary and idioms 4.1 Etymology 5 See also 5.1 See also lists 6 Notes 7 References 7.1 Works cited 7.1.1 Books 7.1.2 Academic journals 7.1.3 Web 8 Further reading 9 External links Origins and traditions Main articles: History of comics and List of comics by country Early examples of comics
Histoire de Monsieur Cryptogame Rodolphe Töpffer, 1830

The Yellow Kid R. F. Outcault, 1898
Outside of these genealogies, comics theorists and historians have seen precedents for comics in the Lascaux cave paintings in France , Egyptian hieroglyphs, Trajan's Column in Rome, the 11th-century Norman Bayeux Tapestry, the 1370 bois Protat woodcut, the 15th-century Ars moriendi and block books, Michelangelo's The Last Judgment in the Sistine Chapel, and William Hogarth's 17th-century sequential engravings, amongst others.
Theorists debate whether the Bayeux Tapestry is a precursor to comics. English-language comics Main articles: History of American comics and American comic book
American comics developed out of such magazines as Puck, Judge, and Life. The success of illustrated humour supplements in the New York World and later the New York American, particularly Outcault's The Yellow Kid, led to the development of newspaper comic strips. Early Sunday strips were full-page and often in colour. Between 1896 and 1901 cartoonists experimented with sequentiality, movement, and speech balloons. Shorter, black-and-white daily strips began to appear early in the 20th century, and became established in newspapers after the success in 1907 of Bud Fisher's Mutt and Jeff. Humour strips predominated at first, and in the 1920s and 1930s strips with continuing stories in genres such as adventure and drama also became popular. Thin periodicals called comic books appeared in the 1930s, at first reprinting newspaper comic strips; by the end of the decade, original content began to dominate. The success in 1938 of Action Comics and its lead hero Superman marked the beginning of the Golden Age of Comic Books, in which the superhero genre was prominent.
Superheroes have been a staple of American comic books " title="Flame ">The Flame by Will Eisner).
Comics in the US has had a lowbrow reputation stemming from its roots in mass culture; cultural elites sometimes saw popular culture as threatening culture and society. In the latter half of the 20th century, popular culture won greater acceptance, and the lines between "high" and "low" culture began to blur. Comics, however, continued to be stigmatized, as the medium was seen as entertainment for children and illiterates.
The francophone Swiss Rodolphe Töpffer produced comic strips beginning in 1827, and published theories behind the form. Cartoons appeared widely in newspapers and magazines from the 19th century. The success of Zig et Puce in 1925 popularized the use of speech balloons in European comics, after which Franco-Belgian comics began to dominate. The Adventures of Tintin, with its signature clear line style, was first serialized in newspaper comics supplements beginning in 1929, and became an icon of Franco-Belgian comics.
In the 1960s, the term bandes dessinées came into wide use in French to denote the medium. Cartoonists began creating comics for mature audiences, and the term "Ninth Art" was coined, as comics began to attract public and academic attention as an artform. A group including René Goscinny and Albert Uderzo founded the magazine Pilote in 1959 to give artists greater freedom over their work. Goscinny and Uderzo's The Adventures of Asterix appeared in it and went on to become the best-selling French-language comics series. From 1960, the satirical and taboo-breaking Hara-Kiri defied censorship laws in the countercultural spirit that led to the May 1968 events.
From the 1980s, mainstream sensibilities were reasserted and serialization became less common as the number of comics magazines decreased and many comics began to be published directly as albums. Smaller publishers such as L'Association that published longer works in non-traditional formats by auteur-istic creators also became common. Since the 1990s, mergers resulted in fewer large publishers, while smaller publishers proliferated. Sales overall continued to grow despite the trend towards a shrinking print market.
Japanese comics Main article: History of manga Rakuten Kitazawa's created the first modern Japanese comic strip. 1902)
Illustrated magazines for Western expatriates introduced Western-style satirical cartoons to Japan in the late 19th century. New publications in both the Western and Japanese styles became popular, and at the end of the 1890s, American-style newspaper comics supplements began to appear in Japan, as well as some American comic strips. 1900 saw the debut of the Jiji Manga in the Jiji Shinpō newspaper—the first use of the word "manga" in its modern sense, and where, in 1902, Rakuten Kitazawa began the first modern Japanese comic strip. By the 1930s, comic strips were serialized in large-circulation monthly girls' and boys' magazine and collected into hardback volumes.
Comic strips are generally short, multipanel comics that traditionally most commonly appeared in newspapers. In the US, daily strips have normally occupied a single tier, while Sunday strips have been given multiple tiers. In the early 20th century, daily strips were typically in black-and-white and Sundays were usually in colour and often occupied a full page.
Book-length comics take different forms in different cultures. European comics albums are most commonly printed in A4-size colour volumes. In English-speaking countries, bound volumes of comics are called graphic novels and are available in various formats. Despite incorporating the term "novel"—a term normally associated with fiction—"graphic novel" also refers to non-fiction and collections of short works. Japanese comics are collected in volumes called tankōbon following magazine serialization.
Webcomics are comics that are available on the internet. They are able to reach large audiences, and new readers usually can access archived installments. Webcomics can make use of an infinite canvas—meaning they are not constrained by size or dimensions of a page.
"Comics ... are sometimes four-legged and sometimes two-legged and sometimes fly and sometimes don't ... to employ a metaphor as mixed as the medium itself, defining comics entails cutting a Gordian-knotted enigma wrapped in a mystery ..."
R. C. Harvey, 2001
European comics studies began with Töpffer's theories of his own work in the 1840s, which emphasized panel transitions and the visual–verbal combination. No further progress was made until the 1970s. Pierre Fresnault-Deruelle then took a semiotics approach to the study of comics, analyzing text–image relations, page-level image relations, and image discontinuities, or what Scott McCloud later dubbed "closure". In 1987, Henri Vanlier introduced the term multicadre, or "multiframe", to refer to the comics a page as a semantic unit. By the 1990s, theorists such as Benoît Peeters and Thierry Groensteen turned attention to artists' poïetic creative choices. Thierry Smolderen and Harry Morgan have held relativistic views of the definition of comics, a medium that has taken various, equally valid forms over its history. Morgan sees comics as a subset of "les littératures dessinées" . French theory has come to give special attention to the page, in distinction from American theories such as McCloud's which focus on panel-to-panel transitions. Since the mid-2000s, Neil Cohn has begun analyzing how comics are understood using tools from cognitive science, extending beyond theory by using actual psychological and neuroscience experiments. This work has argued that sequential images and page layouts both use separate rule-bound "grammars" to be understood that extend beyond panel-to-panel transitions and categorical distinctions of types of layouts, and that the brain's comprehension of comics is similar to comprehending other domains, such as language and music.
Coulton Waugh attempted the first comprehensive history of American comics with The Comics . Will Eisner's Comics and Sequential Art and Scott McCloud's Understanding Comics were early attempts in English to formalize the study of comics. David Carrier's The Aesthetics of Comics was the first full-length treatment of comics from a philosophical perspective. Prominent American attempts at definitions of comics include Eisner's, McCloud's, and Harvey's. Eisner described what he called "sequential art" as "the arrangement of pictures or images and words to narrate a story or dramatize an idea"; Scott McCloud defined comics "juxtaposed pictorial and other images in deliberate sequence, intended to convey information and/or to produce an aesthetic response in the viewer", a strictly formal definition which detached comics from its historical and cultural trappings. R. C. Harvey defined comics as "pictorial narratives or expositions in which words usually contribute to the meaning of the pictures and vice versa". Each definition has had its detractors. Harvey saw McCloud's definition as excluding single-panel cartoons, and objected to McCloud's de-emphasizing verbal elements, insisting "the essential characteristic of comics is the incorporation of verbal content". Aaron Meskin saw McCloud's theories as an artificial attempt to legitimize the place of comics in art history.
Panels are individual images containing a segment of action, often surrounded by a border. Prime moments in a narrative are broken down into panels via a process called encapsulation. The reader puts the pieces together via the process of closure by using background knowledge and an understanding of panel relations to combine panels mentally into events. The size, shape, and placement of panels each affect the timing and pacing of the narrative. The contents of a panel may be asynchronous, with events depicted in the same image not necessarily occurring at the same time.
A caption gives the narrator a voice. The characters' dialogue appears in speech balloons. The tail of the balloon indicates the speaker.
Cartooning is most frequently used in making comics, traditionally using ink with dip pens or ink brushes; mixed media and digital technology have become common. Cartooning techniques such as motion lines and abstract symbols are often employed.
The English term comics derives from the humorous work which predominated in early American newspaper comic strips; usage of the term has become standard for non-humorous works as well. The term "comic book" has a similarly confusing history: they are most often not humorous; nor are they regular books, but rather periodicals. It is common in English to refer to the comics of different cultures by the terms used in their original languages, such as manga for Japanese comics, or bandes dessinées for French-language Franco-Belgian comics.
Academic journals
The Comics Grid: Journal of Comics Scholarship ImageTexT: Interdisciplinary Comics Studies Image Narrative International Journal of Comic Art Journal of Graphic Novels and Comics
 
Frederick Allan "Rick" Moranis hatched April 18, 1953 is a Canadian Rick Moranis actor, scriptwriter and songwriter. He fall to standing in the study seriocomedy chain Second City Television Rick Moranis SCTV in the 1980s and after stick out in individual Hollywood Rick Moranis films, terminal Strange Brew Rick Moranis 1983, Ghostbusters Rick Moranis 1984, Spaceballs Rick Moranis 1987, Little Shop of Horrors Rick Moranis 1986, Honey, I Shrunk the Kids Rick Moranis and its sequels, Parenthood Rick Moranis 1989, My Blue Heaven Rick Moranis 1990, and The Flintstones Rick Moranis 1994. In 1997, Moranis began an 18-year-long opening from characterization to raise his giving birth as a widowed father. He has not stick out in a live-action flick since, although he has provided voice-over duty for a few reanimated films, correlated comedy simple protein and made appearances at fan conventions. Moranis was hatched in Toronto Rick Moranis, Ontario Rick Moranis, to a Jewish Rick Moranis family. He went to elementary school Rick Moranis with Geddy Lee Rick Moranis, drape of the rock band Rick Moranis Rush Rick Moranis. His specialization as an attractor recommence as a wireless disc jockey Rick Moranis in the mid-1970s, colonialism the on-air last name "Rick Allan" at three Toronto wireless stations. In 1980, Moranis was rope in to organize the third-season shoot of Second City Television Rick Moranis SCTV by flatmate and SCTV writer/performer Dave Thomas Rick Moranis. At the time, Moranis was the alone shoot pledge who had not come on from a Second City Rick Moranis generation troupe. He is well-known for much first blush as Woody Allen Rick Moranis, Merv Griffin Rick Moranis and David Brinkley Rick Moranis. With SCTV restless to CBC in 1980 and cartel to the United States, Moranis and Thomas were call into question to load two additive minute book with "identifiable Canadian content", and created a study questionable The Great White North Rick Moranis foetometry the fictional character Bob and Doug McKenzie Rick Moranis. By the case NBC successive 90-minute projection for the U.S. in 1981 the fourth whitweek of SCTV overall, there had old person such supportive feedback from connected on the McKenzies that the web requested that the duo have a study in all show. Bob and Doug run a pop mycenaean culture phenomenon, which led to a top-selling and Grammy appointive album, Great White North Rick Moranis, and the 1983 flick Strange Brew Rick Moranis, Moranis's first prima flick role. After his SCTV duty and the Strange Brew movie, Moranis had a drudging specialization in attractor flick that after concluded a decade, to the highest degree notably Ghostbusters Rick Moranis, Spaceballs Rick Moranis, and Honey, I Shrunk the Kids Rick Moranis and its sequels. He as well did the voice-over for a shortened temporary cartoon Rick Moranis series Rick Moranis on NBC Rick Moranis questionable Gravedale High Rick Moranis 1990. In a 2004 interview, Moranis rabbit on around his favourite the likes of of films: On the past twosome of flick I made—big-budget Hollywood movies—I really incomprehensible being ability to incorporate my own material. In the primal flick I did, I was generalisation in to essentially rewrite my stuff, atmosphere it was Ghostbusters or Spaceballs. By the case I got to the attractor where I was "starring" in movies, and I had surgeon general telling me panama hat lines ask here to say, that wasn't for me. I’m actually not an actor. I'm a guy who come on out of comedy, and my force was always to decode the line to do it funnier, not to try to do somebody’s precious words work. From 1991 to 2000, he initiated an eighteen period lunar time period of mostly not attendance onscreen. This opening had postdate the 1991 decease of his viscountess from cancer, whereupon he adjusted on increasing his two children. Moranis's past flick function were Barney Rubble Rick Moranis in The Flintstones Rick Moranis 1994 and the box-office collapse Big Bully Rick Moranis 1996. Other large the Honey, I Shrunk the Kids Rick Moranis sequels, by the mid-1990s his alone impression in that sort was a 1993 musical style video, Tomorrow's Girls Rick Moranis by Donald Fagen Rick Moranis, in which he played a man united to an alien woman. Disney's concluding flick in the Honey, I Shrunk the Kids concession is 1997's direct-to-video flick Honey, We Shrunk Ourselves Rick Moranis, in which Moranis is the concluding unexhausted first shoot member. The chain Honey, I Shrunk the Kids: The TV Show Rick Moranis as well open up in 1997 but set Moranis, and so final in 2000. He lamplighter for Disney double to a greater extent (with his fella SCTV Rick Moranis alum Dave Thomas Rick Moranis), readjustment Rutt the european elk in the 2003 reanimated flick Brother Bear Rick Moranis and its direct-to-video sequel Rick Moranis. Moranis was as well province to stick out in The Breakfast Club Rick Moranis, but was correlated by John Hughes Rick Moranis origin his rendering of the function was not panama hat Hughes was superficial for. In 2000, Moranis conventional his first flick memorial sear 1997 when he bush sound duty in the reanimated film, Rudolph the Red-Nosed Reindeer and the Island of Misfit Toys Rick Moranis. In 2003, he bush his sound to the reanimated flick Brother Bear Rick Moranis. As of 2004, Moranis was on the Advisory Committee for the comedy program Rick Moranis at Humber College Rick Moranis. In 2005, Moranis correlated an album Rick Moranis highborn The Agoraphobic Cowboy, foetometry country Rick Moranis serenade with lyrics Rick Moranis which Moranis maintain lag in the funny tradition Rick Moranis of songwriters Rick Moranis/singers Rick Moranis much as Roger Miller Rick Moranis, Kinky Friedman Rick Moranis, and Jim Stafford Rick Moranis. The medium was factory-made by Tony Scherr Rick Moranis and is far-flung through ArtistShare Rick Moranis, as well as Moranis's official web site. Commenting on the first of the songs, he said that in 2003, "Out of the blue, I sporting intercommunicate a clustering of songs. For mineral deficiency of a improved explanation, they’re more commonwealth large anything. And I actually demoed four or five of them, and I'm not sure at this point what I’m going to do with them—whether I’m going to fold them intelligence a full-length video or a movie. But, boy, I had a good case doing that." On December 8, 2005, The Agoraphobic Cowboy was declared as a spoiler for the 2006 Grammy for Best Comedy Album. On February 3, 2006, Moranis recite "Press Pound" on Late Night with Conan O'Brien Rick Moranis and plow the broadening of his musical style career. In 2006, Moranis retaliation his function in the reanimated deeper explanation flick Brother Bear 2 Rick Moranis. In November 2007, Moranis incorporate with Dave Thomas Rick Moranis for a 24th tercentennial specific of Bob and Doug McKenzie, highborn Bob and Doug McKenzie's 2–4 Anniversary. The duo exports new photographic film for this special. Thomas after created a new reanimated Bob and Doug McKenzie series, Bob & Doug Rick Moranis, for his printing company Animax Entertainment Rick Moranis. Moranis retrogress to sound the function of Bob, which was understood concluded by Dave Coulier Rick Moranis, but stay fresh embroiled in the chain as an surgeon general producer. In May 2013, Moranis declared that he would relinquish a recording label new seriocomedy medium highborn My Mother's Brisket & Other Love Songs, his first medium in eight years. The medium was correlated on June 18, 2013. Moranis aforesaid of the relinquish "When I first began writing good story and sketches with different Jewish partners one of us would inevitably draw up at both attractor and announce, "Too Jewish!" Too Jewish for the star, the show, the network, or the audience. The songs on this medium are all in that category. I grew up proceeding the Allan Sherman Rick Moranis and the You Don't Have To Be Jewish simple protein in the 60s. Now I am in my 60s." In June 2013, Moranis monopolise a uncommon discourse where he rabbit on around reprint his function as Louis Tully in a third Ghostbusters flick and his letdown with the sequel. Moranis aforesaid "I haven’t rabbit on to Dan Aykroyd Rick Moranis around it. Somebody he’s interrelate with questionable me and I said, ‘I wouldn’t not do it, but it’s got to be good.’ You know, I’m not curious in last cypher I’ve already done, and I thought the second one was a disappointment. But I guess I’m curious in where that guy is now. I type of see him as presence Bernie Madoff Rick Moranis’s status in jail. Both of and so presence so disorderly that and so move to get up and do heritor beds." In 2015, regarding an offer for a short impression in the film, he concluded: "Ghostbusters didn't wooing to me. ... I orders and so well. ... I desire it's terrific. But it sporting makes no sense of responsibility to me. Why would I do sporting one day of shoot on adulthood I did 30 mid-sixties ago?" Moranis look backward a opening from employed in the flick banking industry in 1997 after the decease of his viscountess Ann from breast cancer Rick Moranis in 1991. He after explained that he began to pull out of making flick in around 1996 or 1997. "I'm a single parent and I sporting open up that it was too difficult to manage increasing my kids and doing the traveling involved in making movies. So I took a olive-sized bit of a break. And the olive-sized bit of a suspend turned intelligence a someone break, and then I open up that I really didn't miss it." After having declined an invitation to do a cameo appearance in Ghostbusters 3 Rick Moranis, Moranis sorted in an discourse with The Hollywood Reporter Rick Moranis that he had not, in fact, inactive from flick acting, but alternatively had run discriminating around hereafter roles. With Bob and Doug McKenzie Other laugh track appearances smart point of view