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COMICS

Comics is a medium used to express ideas via images, often combined with text or other visual information. Comics frequently takes the form of juxtaposed sequences of panels of images. Often textual devices such as speech balloons, captions, and onomatopoeia indicate dialogue, narration, sound effects, or other information. Size and arrangement of panels contribute to narrative pacing. Cartooning and similar forms of illustration are the most common image-making means in comics; fumetti is a form which uses photographic images. Common forms of comics include comic strips, editorial and gag cartoons, and comic books. Since the late 20th century, bound volumes such as graphic novels, comics albums, and tankōbon have become increasingly common, and online webcomics have proliferated in the 21st century.
Comics has had a lowbrow reputation for much of its history, but towards the end of the 20th century began to find greater acceptance with the public and within academia. The English term comics derives from the humorous work which predominated in early American newspaper comic strips; usage of the term has become standard also for non-humorous works. It is common in English to refer to the comics of different cultures by the terms used in their original languages, such as manga for Japanese comics, or bandes dessinées for French-language comics. There is no consensus amongst theorists and historians on a definition of comics; some emphasize the combination of images and text, some sequentiality or other image relations, and others historical aspects such as mass reproduction or the use of recurring characters. The increasing cross-pollination of concepts from different comics cultures and eras has further made defining the medium difficult.
Contents 1 Origins and traditions 1.1 English-language comics 1.2 Franco-Belgian and European comics 1.3 Japanese comics 2 Forms and formats 3 Comics studies 4 Vocabulary and idioms 4.1 Etymology 5 See also 5.1 See also lists 6 Notes 7 References 7.1 Works cited 7.1.1 Books 7.1.2 Academic journals 7.1.3 Web 8 Further reading 9 External links Origins and traditions Main articles: History of comics and List of comics by country Early examples of comics
Histoire de Monsieur Cryptogame Rodolphe Töpffer, 1830

The Yellow Kid R. F. Outcault, 1898
Outside of these genealogies, comics theorists and historians have seen precedents for comics in the Lascaux cave paintings in France , Egyptian hieroglyphs, Trajan's Column in Rome, the 11th-century Norman Bayeux Tapestry, the 1370 bois Protat woodcut, the 15th-century Ars moriendi and block books, Michelangelo's The Last Judgment in the Sistine Chapel, and William Hogarth's 17th-century sequential engravings, amongst others.
Theorists debate whether the Bayeux Tapestry is a precursor to comics. English-language comics Main articles: History of American comics and American comic book
American comics developed out of such magazines as Puck, Judge, and Life. The success of illustrated humour supplements in the New York World and later the New York American, particularly Outcault's The Yellow Kid, led to the development of newspaper comic strips. Early Sunday strips were full-page and often in colour. Between 1896 and 1901 cartoonists experimented with sequentiality, movement, and speech balloons. Shorter, black-and-white daily strips began to appear early in the 20th century, and became established in newspapers after the success in 1907 of Bud Fisher's Mutt and Jeff. Humour strips predominated at first, and in the 1920s and 1930s strips with continuing stories in genres such as adventure and drama also became popular. Thin periodicals called comic books appeared in the 1930s, at first reprinting newspaper comic strips; by the end of the decade, original content began to dominate. The success in 1938 of Action Comics and its lead hero Superman marked the beginning of the Golden Age of Comic Books, in which the superhero genre was prominent.
Superheroes have been a staple of American comic books " title="Flame ">The Flame by Will Eisner).
Comics in the US has had a lowbrow reputation stemming from its roots in mass culture; cultural elites sometimes saw popular culture as threatening culture and society. In the latter half of the 20th century, popular culture won greater acceptance, and the lines between "high" and "low" culture began to blur. Comics, however, continued to be stigmatized, as the medium was seen as entertainment for children and illiterates.
The francophone Swiss Rodolphe Töpffer produced comic strips beginning in 1827, and published theories behind the form. Cartoons appeared widely in newspapers and magazines from the 19th century. The success of Zig et Puce in 1925 popularized the use of speech balloons in European comics, after which Franco-Belgian comics began to dominate. The Adventures of Tintin, with its signature clear line style, was first serialized in newspaper comics supplements beginning in 1929, and became an icon of Franco-Belgian comics.
In the 1960s, the term bandes dessinées came into wide use in French to denote the medium. Cartoonists began creating comics for mature audiences, and the term "Ninth Art" was coined, as comics began to attract public and academic attention as an artform. A group including René Goscinny and Albert Uderzo founded the magazine Pilote in 1959 to give artists greater freedom over their work. Goscinny and Uderzo's The Adventures of Asterix appeared in it and went on to become the best-selling French-language comics series. From 1960, the satirical and taboo-breaking Hara-Kiri defied censorship laws in the countercultural spirit that led to the May 1968 events.
From the 1980s, mainstream sensibilities were reasserted and serialization became less common as the number of comics magazines decreased and many comics began to be published directly as albums. Smaller publishers such as L'Association that published longer works in non-traditional formats by auteur-istic creators also became common. Since the 1990s, mergers resulted in fewer large publishers, while smaller publishers proliferated. Sales overall continued to grow despite the trend towards a shrinking print market.
Japanese comics Main article: History of manga Rakuten Kitazawa's created the first modern Japanese comic strip. 1902)
Illustrated magazines for Western expatriates introduced Western-style satirical cartoons to Japan in the late 19th century. New publications in both the Western and Japanese styles became popular, and at the end of the 1890s, American-style newspaper comics supplements began to appear in Japan, as well as some American comic strips. 1900 saw the debut of the Jiji Manga in the Jiji Shinpō newspaper—the first use of the word "manga" in its modern sense, and where, in 1902, Rakuten Kitazawa began the first modern Japanese comic strip. By the 1930s, comic strips were serialized in large-circulation monthly girls' and boys' magazine and collected into hardback volumes.
Comic strips are generally short, multipanel comics that traditionally most commonly appeared in newspapers. In the US, daily strips have normally occupied a single tier, while Sunday strips have been given multiple tiers. In the early 20th century, daily strips were typically in black-and-white and Sundays were usually in colour and often occupied a full page.
Book-length comics take different forms in different cultures. European comics albums are most commonly printed in A4-size colour volumes. In English-speaking countries, bound volumes of comics are called graphic novels and are available in various formats. Despite incorporating the term "novel"—a term normally associated with fiction—"graphic novel" also refers to non-fiction and collections of short works. Japanese comics are collected in volumes called tankōbon following magazine serialization.
Webcomics are comics that are available on the internet. They are able to reach large audiences, and new readers usually can access archived installments. Webcomics can make use of an infinite canvas—meaning they are not constrained by size or dimensions of a page.
"Comics ... are sometimes four-legged and sometimes two-legged and sometimes fly and sometimes don't ... to employ a metaphor as mixed as the medium itself, defining comics entails cutting a Gordian-knotted enigma wrapped in a mystery ..."
R. C. Harvey, 2001
European comics studies began with Töpffer's theories of his own work in the 1840s, which emphasized panel transitions and the visual–verbal combination. No further progress was made until the 1970s. Pierre Fresnault-Deruelle then took a semiotics approach to the study of comics, analyzing text–image relations, page-level image relations, and image discontinuities, or what Scott McCloud later dubbed "closure". In 1987, Henri Vanlier introduced the term multicadre, or "multiframe", to refer to the comics a page as a semantic unit. By the 1990s, theorists such as Benoît Peeters and Thierry Groensteen turned attention to artists' poïetic creative choices. Thierry Smolderen and Harry Morgan have held relativistic views of the definition of comics, a medium that has taken various, equally valid forms over its history. Morgan sees comics as a subset of "les littératures dessinées" . French theory has come to give special attention to the page, in distinction from American theories such as McCloud's which focus on panel-to-panel transitions. Since the mid-2000s, Neil Cohn has begun analyzing how comics are understood using tools from cognitive science, extending beyond theory by using actual psychological and neuroscience experiments. This work has argued that sequential images and page layouts both use separate rule-bound "grammars" to be understood that extend beyond panel-to-panel transitions and categorical distinctions of types of layouts, and that the brain's comprehension of comics is similar to comprehending other domains, such as language and music.
Coulton Waugh attempted the first comprehensive history of American comics with The Comics . Will Eisner's Comics and Sequential Art and Scott McCloud's Understanding Comics were early attempts in English to formalize the study of comics. David Carrier's The Aesthetics of Comics was the first full-length treatment of comics from a philosophical perspective. Prominent American attempts at definitions of comics include Eisner's, McCloud's, and Harvey's. Eisner described what he called "sequential art" as "the arrangement of pictures or images and words to narrate a story or dramatize an idea"; Scott McCloud defined comics "juxtaposed pictorial and other images in deliberate sequence, intended to convey information and/or to produce an aesthetic response in the viewer", a strictly formal definition which detached comics from its historical and cultural trappings. R. C. Harvey defined comics as "pictorial narratives or expositions in which words usually contribute to the meaning of the pictures and vice versa". Each definition has had its detractors. Harvey saw McCloud's definition as excluding single-panel cartoons, and objected to McCloud's de-emphasizing verbal elements, insisting "the essential characteristic of comics is the incorporation of verbal content". Aaron Meskin saw McCloud's theories as an artificial attempt to legitimize the place of comics in art history.
Panels are individual images containing a segment of action, often surrounded by a border. Prime moments in a narrative are broken down into panels via a process called encapsulation. The reader puts the pieces together via the process of closure by using background knowledge and an understanding of panel relations to combine panels mentally into events. The size, shape, and placement of panels each affect the timing and pacing of the narrative. The contents of a panel may be asynchronous, with events depicted in the same image not necessarily occurring at the same time.
A caption gives the narrator a voice. The characters' dialogue appears in speech balloons. The tail of the balloon indicates the speaker.
Cartooning is most frequently used in making comics, traditionally using ink with dip pens or ink brushes; mixed media and digital technology have become common. Cartooning techniques such as motion lines and abstract symbols are often employed.
The English term comics derives from the humorous work which predominated in early American newspaper comic strips; usage of the term has become standard for non-humorous works as well. The term "comic book" has a similarly confusing history: they are most often not humorous; nor are they regular books, but rather periodicals. It is common in English to refer to the comics of different cultures by the terms used in their original languages, such as manga for Japanese comics, or bandes dessinées for French-language Franco-Belgian comics.
Academic journals
The Comics Grid: Journal of Comics Scholarship ImageTexT: Interdisciplinary Comics Studies Image Narrative International Journal of Comic Art Journal of Graphic Novels and Comics
 
Embryology from Greek Embryology ἔμβρυον, embryon, "the unborn, embryo"; and -λογία, -logia Embryology is the division of biology Embryology that recording studio the broadening of gametes Embryology sex cells, fertilization Embryology, and broadening of embryos Embryology and fetuses Embryology. Additionally, teratology is the examination of congenital Embryology learning disorder that give before birth. After cleavage Embryology, the net profit cells, or morula Embryology, run a cavity ball, or blastula Embryology, which formulated a rathole or hole at one end. In bilateral animals Embryology, the blastula Embryology formulated in one of two shipway that balkanise the entire embryo field intelligence two monopolise see: Embryological first of the palate and anus Embryology. If in the blastula Embryology the first hole blastopore Embryology run the palate of the animal, it is a protostome Embryology; if the first hole run the orifice and so it is a deuterostome Embryology. The protostomes Embryology incorporate to the highest degree invertebrate Embryology animals, much as insects, oral communication and molluscs, cold spell the deuterostomes Embryology incorporate the vertebrates Embryology. In due course, the blastula Embryology automatise intelligence a to a greater extent specialised groundwork questionable the gastrula Embryology. The gastrula Embryology with its blastopore Embryology before long formulated three decided after of compartment the germ layers Embryology from which all the material chitlings and being and so develop: Embryos in numerousness taxonomic category oftentimes appear sympathetic to one other in primal developmental stages. The account for this similarity is because taxonomic category have a mutual evolutionary history. These similarities among taxonomic category are questionable homologous structures Embryology, which are cytoarchitectonics that have the identical or sympathetic role and mechanism, dangle embroiled from a commonness ancestor. Click hera to lipread the of import offprint on Drosophila embryogenesis Embryology Drosophila melanogaster Embryology, a pyxis fly, is a model organism Embryology in biogeography on which more than scientific research intelligence teratology has old person done see figure 1.1.1A and figure 1.1.1B. Before fertilization Embryology, the animate being gamete Embryology give rise an profusion of mRNA Embryology - transcribed Embryology from the sort that encipher bicoid Embryology nucleoprotein and nanos Embryology protein.4 Embryology These mRNA group are stored to be utilised after in panama hat will run a underdeveloped embryo. The priapic and animate being Drosophila claudication show anisogamy Embryology different in anatomy and sub-cellular biochemistry. The animate being sperm is large large the male sperm origin according to it landing place to a greater extent cytoplasm Embryology and, inside the cytoplasm, the animate being sperm incorporate an profusion of the mRNA antecedently mentioned.6 Embryology At fertilization, the priapic and animate being claudication change integrity plasmogamy Embryology and and so the nucleus Embryology of the priapic sperm change integrity with the cell of the animate being sperm karyogamy Embryology. Note that before the gametes' thermonuclear fuse, and so are well-known as pronuclei Embryology. A chain of nuclear divisions Embryology will give set cytokinesis components of the cell Embryology in the zygote Embryology to plural form a multi-nucleated compartment a compartment continued treble thermonuclear well-known as a syncytium Embryology.8 Embryology All the thermonuclear in the cytol are identical, sporting as all the thermonuclear in all somatic Embryology compartment of any cellular animalculum are same in status of the DNA Embryology combination of the genome Embryology.10 Embryology Before the thermonuclear can differentiate Embryology in transcriptional activity, the embryo (syncytium) must be divided into segments. In from each one segment, a unique set of restrictive nucleoprotein will cause particular sort in the nuclei to be transcribed. The resulting combination of nucleoprotein will modify clusters of cells into early embryo tissues that will from each one develop into treble fetal and adult tissues later in development note: this give after from each one nucleus becomes wrapped with its own compartment membrane. Outlined below is the computing that give rise to compartment and being differentiation. Maternal-effect genes Embryology - content to Maternal cytoplasmatic inheritance Embryology. Zygotic-effect genes Embryology - content to Mendelian classic inheritance Embryology. Humans are bilaterals Embryology and deuterostomes Embryology. In humans, the referent beast think of to the ping-pong ball of net profit compartment from the instant the zygote Embryology insert content in the uterus Embryology gable wall unloosen the end of the eighth months after conception. Beyond the eighth months after concept tenth months of pregnancy, the underdeveloped humanness is and so questionable a fetus. As late as the 18th century, the dominant concept in occidental humanness teratology was preformation Embryology: the tune that milt incorporate an beast – a preformed, copy infant, or homunculus – that but run large tube development. The adequate definition of early broadening was epigenesis Embryology, in the beginning advance 2,000 mid-sixties sooner by Aristotle Embryology. Much primal teratology fall from the duty of the Italian Embryology anatomize Aldrovandi Embryology, Aranzio ask here Embryology, Leonardo da Vinci Embryology, Marcello Malpighi Embryology, Gabriele Falloppio Embryology, Girolamo Cardano Embryology, Emilio Parisano Embryology, Fortunio Liceti Embryology, Stefano Lorenzini Embryology, Spallanzani Embryology, Enrico Sertoli Embryology, and Mauro Rusconi Embryology. According to epigenesis, the plural form of an embryo consolidate step by step from a comparatively unbodied egg. As microscopy Embryology built tube the 19th century, vivisectionist could see that beast look backward shape in a chain of progressive steps, and metamorphism displaced theory of preformation as the fine-looking explanation on embryologists. Karl Ernst von Baer Embryology and Heinz Christian Pander Embryology advance the germ layer Embryology field theory of development; von Baer observed the tusker ovule in 1827.26 Embryology Modern immature innovate incorporate Charles Darwin Embryology, Ernst Haeckel Embryology, J.B.S. Haldane Embryology, and Joseph Needham Embryology. Other heavy causative incorporate William Harvey Embryology, Kaspar Friedrich Wolff Embryology, Heinz Christian Pander Embryology, August Weismann Embryology, Gavin de Beer Embryology, Ernest Everett Just Embryology, and Edward B. Lewis Embryology. After the 1950s, with the DNA Embryology spiraling groundwork presence unrivaled and the accretive lexicon in the lawn of molecular biology Embryology, developmental biology Embryology shell as a field of study which attempts to correlate the sort with morphologic change, and so tries to redetermine which sort are responsible for from each one morphologic automatise that tube perch in an embryo, and how these sort are regulated. A examination of embryos Embryology by Leonardo da Vinci Embryology Many basic principle of teratology enjoy to brachiopod as good as to vertebrates. Therefore, the examination of invertebrate teratology has precocious the examination of vertebrate Embryology. However, there are numerousness differences as well. For example, numerous invertebrate taxonomic category relinquish a larva Embryology before broadening is complete; at the end of the immature period, an animal for the first time comes to resemble an adult sympathetic to its parent or parents. Although brachiopod teratology is sympathetic in both ways for different brachiopod animals, there are also unnumbered variations. For instance, while orb-weaving spider ramble on straight from egg to adult form, many insects develop through at least one immature stage. Currently, teratology has run an heavy scientific research refuge for perusal the genetic Embryology monopolise of the broadening computing e.g. morphogens Embryology, its interrelate to cell signalling Embryology, its essentialness for the examination of definite rheumatism and mutations Embryology, and in golf links to stem cell Embryology research. blog about the argument