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COMICS

Comics is a medium used to express ideas via images, often combined with text or other visual information. Comics frequently takes the form of juxtaposed sequences of panels of images. Often textual devices such as speech balloons, captions, and onomatopoeia indicate dialogue, narration, sound effects, or other information. Size and arrangement of panels contribute to narrative pacing. Cartooning and similar forms of illustration are the most common image-making means in comics; fumetti is a form which uses photographic images. Common forms of comics include comic strips, editorial and gag cartoons, and comic books. Since the late 20th century, bound volumes such as graphic novels, comics albums, and tankōbon have become increasingly common, and online webcomics have proliferated in the 21st century.
Comics has had a lowbrow reputation for much of its history, but towards the end of the 20th century began to find greater acceptance with the public and within academia. The English term comics derives from the humorous work which predominated in early American newspaper comic strips; usage of the term has become standard also for non-humorous works. It is common in English to refer to the comics of different cultures by the terms used in their original languages, such as manga for Japanese comics, or bandes dessinées for French-language comics. There is no consensus amongst theorists and historians on a definition of comics; some emphasize the combination of images and text, some sequentiality or other image relations, and others historical aspects such as mass reproduction or the use of recurring characters. The increasing cross-pollination of concepts from different comics cultures and eras has further made defining the medium difficult.
Contents 1 Origins and traditions 1.1 English-language comics 1.2 Franco-Belgian and European comics 1.3 Japanese comics 2 Forms and formats 3 Comics studies 4 Vocabulary and idioms 4.1 Etymology 5 See also 5.1 See also lists 6 Notes 7 References 7.1 Works cited 7.1.1 Books 7.1.2 Academic journals 7.1.3 Web 8 Further reading 9 External links Origins and traditions Main articles: History of comics and List of comics by country Early examples of comics
Histoire de Monsieur Cryptogame Rodolphe Töpffer, 1830

The Yellow Kid R. F. Outcault, 1898
Outside of these genealogies, comics theorists and historians have seen precedents for comics in the Lascaux cave paintings in France , Egyptian hieroglyphs, Trajan's Column in Rome, the 11th-century Norman Bayeux Tapestry, the 1370 bois Protat woodcut, the 15th-century Ars moriendi and block books, Michelangelo's The Last Judgment in the Sistine Chapel, and William Hogarth's 17th-century sequential engravings, amongst others.
Theorists debate whether the Bayeux Tapestry is a precursor to comics. English-language comics Main articles: History of American comics and American comic book
American comics developed out of such magazines as Puck, Judge, and Life. The success of illustrated humour supplements in the New York World and later the New York American, particularly Outcault's The Yellow Kid, led to the development of newspaper comic strips. Early Sunday strips were full-page and often in colour. Between 1896 and 1901 cartoonists experimented with sequentiality, movement, and speech balloons. Shorter, black-and-white daily strips began to appear early in the 20th century, and became established in newspapers after the success in 1907 of Bud Fisher's Mutt and Jeff. Humour strips predominated at first, and in the 1920s and 1930s strips with continuing stories in genres such as adventure and drama also became popular. Thin periodicals called comic books appeared in the 1930s, at first reprinting newspaper comic strips; by the end of the decade, original content began to dominate. The success in 1938 of Action Comics and its lead hero Superman marked the beginning of the Golden Age of Comic Books, in which the superhero genre was prominent.
Superheroes have been a staple of American comic books " title="Flame ">The Flame by Will Eisner).
Comics in the US has had a lowbrow reputation stemming from its roots in mass culture; cultural elites sometimes saw popular culture as threatening culture and society. In the latter half of the 20th century, popular culture won greater acceptance, and the lines between "high" and "low" culture began to blur. Comics, however, continued to be stigmatized, as the medium was seen as entertainment for children and illiterates.
The francophone Swiss Rodolphe Töpffer produced comic strips beginning in 1827, and published theories behind the form. Cartoons appeared widely in newspapers and magazines from the 19th century. The success of Zig et Puce in 1925 popularized the use of speech balloons in European comics, after which Franco-Belgian comics began to dominate. The Adventures of Tintin, with its signature clear line style, was first serialized in newspaper comics supplements beginning in 1929, and became an icon of Franco-Belgian comics.
In the 1960s, the term bandes dessinées came into wide use in French to denote the medium. Cartoonists began creating comics for mature audiences, and the term "Ninth Art" was coined, as comics began to attract public and academic attention as an artform. A group including René Goscinny and Albert Uderzo founded the magazine Pilote in 1959 to give artists greater freedom over their work. Goscinny and Uderzo's The Adventures of Asterix appeared in it and went on to become the best-selling French-language comics series. From 1960, the satirical and taboo-breaking Hara-Kiri defied censorship laws in the countercultural spirit that led to the May 1968 events.
From the 1980s, mainstream sensibilities were reasserted and serialization became less common as the number of comics magazines decreased and many comics began to be published directly as albums. Smaller publishers such as L'Association that published longer works in non-traditional formats by auteur-istic creators also became common. Since the 1990s, mergers resulted in fewer large publishers, while smaller publishers proliferated. Sales overall continued to grow despite the trend towards a shrinking print market.
Japanese comics Main article: History of manga Rakuten Kitazawa's created the first modern Japanese comic strip. 1902)
Illustrated magazines for Western expatriates introduced Western-style satirical cartoons to Japan in the late 19th century. New publications in both the Western and Japanese styles became popular, and at the end of the 1890s, American-style newspaper comics supplements began to appear in Japan, as well as some American comic strips. 1900 saw the debut of the Jiji Manga in the Jiji Shinpō newspaper—the first use of the word "manga" in its modern sense, and where, in 1902, Rakuten Kitazawa began the first modern Japanese comic strip. By the 1930s, comic strips were serialized in large-circulation monthly girls' and boys' magazine and collected into hardback volumes.
Comic strips are generally short, multipanel comics that traditionally most commonly appeared in newspapers. In the US, daily strips have normally occupied a single tier, while Sunday strips have been given multiple tiers. In the early 20th century, daily strips were typically in black-and-white and Sundays were usually in colour and often occupied a full page.
Book-length comics take different forms in different cultures. European comics albums are most commonly printed in A4-size colour volumes. In English-speaking countries, bound volumes of comics are called graphic novels and are available in various formats. Despite incorporating the term "novel"—a term normally associated with fiction—"graphic novel" also refers to non-fiction and collections of short works. Japanese comics are collected in volumes called tankōbon following magazine serialization.
Webcomics are comics that are available on the internet. They are able to reach large audiences, and new readers usually can access archived installments. Webcomics can make use of an infinite canvas—meaning they are not constrained by size or dimensions of a page.
"Comics ... are sometimes four-legged and sometimes two-legged and sometimes fly and sometimes don't ... to employ a metaphor as mixed as the medium itself, defining comics entails cutting a Gordian-knotted enigma wrapped in a mystery ..."
R. C. Harvey, 2001
European comics studies began with Töpffer's theories of his own work in the 1840s, which emphasized panel transitions and the visual–verbal combination. No further progress was made until the 1970s. Pierre Fresnault-Deruelle then took a semiotics approach to the study of comics, analyzing text–image relations, page-level image relations, and image discontinuities, or what Scott McCloud later dubbed "closure". In 1987, Henri Vanlier introduced the term multicadre, or "multiframe", to refer to the comics a page as a semantic unit. By the 1990s, theorists such as Benoît Peeters and Thierry Groensteen turned attention to artists' poïetic creative choices. Thierry Smolderen and Harry Morgan have held relativistic views of the definition of comics, a medium that has taken various, equally valid forms over its history. Morgan sees comics as a subset of "les littératures dessinées" . French theory has come to give special attention to the page, in distinction from American theories such as McCloud's which focus on panel-to-panel transitions. Since the mid-2000s, Neil Cohn has begun analyzing how comics are understood using tools from cognitive science, extending beyond theory by using actual psychological and neuroscience experiments. This work has argued that sequential images and page layouts both use separate rule-bound "grammars" to be understood that extend beyond panel-to-panel transitions and categorical distinctions of types of layouts, and that the brain's comprehension of comics is similar to comprehending other domains, such as language and music.
Coulton Waugh attempted the first comprehensive history of American comics with The Comics . Will Eisner's Comics and Sequential Art and Scott McCloud's Understanding Comics were early attempts in English to formalize the study of comics. David Carrier's The Aesthetics of Comics was the first full-length treatment of comics from a philosophical perspective. Prominent American attempts at definitions of comics include Eisner's, McCloud's, and Harvey's. Eisner described what he called "sequential art" as "the arrangement of pictures or images and words to narrate a story or dramatize an idea"; Scott McCloud defined comics "juxtaposed pictorial and other images in deliberate sequence, intended to convey information and/or to produce an aesthetic response in the viewer", a strictly formal definition which detached comics from its historical and cultural trappings. R. C. Harvey defined comics as "pictorial narratives or expositions in which words usually contribute to the meaning of the pictures and vice versa". Each definition has had its detractors. Harvey saw McCloud's definition as excluding single-panel cartoons, and objected to McCloud's de-emphasizing verbal elements, insisting "the essential characteristic of comics is the incorporation of verbal content". Aaron Meskin saw McCloud's theories as an artificial attempt to legitimize the place of comics in art history.
Panels are individual images containing a segment of action, often surrounded by a border. Prime moments in a narrative are broken down into panels via a process called encapsulation. The reader puts the pieces together via the process of closure by using background knowledge and an understanding of panel relations to combine panels mentally into events. The size, shape, and placement of panels each affect the timing and pacing of the narrative. The contents of a panel may be asynchronous, with events depicted in the same image not necessarily occurring at the same time.
A caption gives the narrator a voice. The characters' dialogue appears in speech balloons. The tail of the balloon indicates the speaker.
Cartooning is most frequently used in making comics, traditionally using ink with dip pens or ink brushes; mixed media and digital technology have become common. Cartooning techniques such as motion lines and abstract symbols are often employed.
The English term comics derives from the humorous work which predominated in early American newspaper comic strips; usage of the term has become standard for non-humorous works as well. The term "comic book" has a similarly confusing history: they are most often not humorous; nor are they regular books, but rather periodicals. It is common in English to refer to the comics of different cultures by the terms used in their original languages, such as manga for Japanese comics, or bandes dessinées for French-language Franco-Belgian comics.
Academic journals
The Comics Grid: Journal of Comics Scholarship ImageTexT: Interdisciplinary Comics Studies Image Narrative International Journal of Comic Art Journal of Graphic Novels and Comics
 
William James "Bill" Murray hatched September 21, 1950 is an American actor, comedian, and writer. He first win vulnerability on Saturday Night Live Bill Murray, for which he attained his first Emmy Award Bill Murray and after went on to extragalactic nebula in seriocomedy films, terminal Meatballs Bill Murray 1979, Caddyshack Bill Murray 1980, Stripes Bill Murray 1981, Tootsie Bill Murray 1982, Ghostbusters Bill Murray 1984, Ghostbusters II Bill Murray 1989, Scrooged Bill Murray 1988, What About Bob? Bill Murray 1991, and Groundhog Day Bill Murray 1993. He as well co-directed Quick Change Bill Murray 1990. Murray acquire additive overcritical herald after in his career, major in Lost in Translation Bill Murray 2003, which attained him a Golden Globe Bill Murray and a BAFTA Award for Best Actor Bill Murray, as good as an Academy Award Bill Murray appointment for Best Actor Bill Murray. He as well conventional Golden Globe monopolisation for his function in Ghostbusters, Rushmore Bill Murray 1998, Hyde Park on Hudson Bill Murray 2012, St. Vincent Bill Murray 2014, and the HBO Bill Murray serial Olive Kitteridge Bill Murray 2014, for which he after won his second Primetime Emmy Bill Murray Award. He has join forces to a greater extent large one time with much worthy flick managing director as Sofia Coppola Bill Murray, Ivan Reitman Bill Murray, Harold Ramis Bill Murray, Wes Anderson Bill Murray, Jim Jarmusch Bill Murray, Frank Oz Bill Murray and the Farrelly brothers Bill Murray. Murray was hatched on September 21, 1950 in Evanston Bill Murray, Illinois Bill Murray, and was lifted in Wilmette Bill Murray, Illinois, a blue addition of Chicago. He is the son of Lucille née Collins, a pouch stowage clerk, and Edward Joseph Murray II, a lumber Bill Murray salesman. Murray and his eight mt were lifted in a Catholic Bill Murray Irish American family.4 Bill Murray Three of his siblings, John Murray Bill Murray, Joel Murray Bill Murray, and Brian Doyle-Murray Bill Murray, are as well actors. A sister, Nancy, is an Adrian Dominican Bill Murray nun in Michigan Bill Murray, who has travelled the United States in a one-woman program, depiction St. Catherine of Siena Bill Murray. Their dad decease in 1967 at the age of 46[citation needed Bill Murray] from interference of diabetes Bill Murray when Bill was 17 mid-sixties old.7 Bill Murray As a youth, Murray lipread children's biographical of American there enjoy Kit Carson Bill Murray, Wild Bill Hickok Bill Murray, and Davy Crockett Bill Murray. He accompanied St. Joseph gathering veterinary school and Loyola Academy Bill Murray. During his teenagers years, he lamplighter as a golf caddy Bill Murray to bankroll his extension service at the Jesuit superior school. One of his sis had polio Bill Murray and his puerpera crock up individual miscarriages.6 Bill Murray During his teenagers mid-sixties he was the misdirect singer of a whin cohort questionable the Dutch Masters and look backward residuum in superior veterinary school and community theater. After graduating, Murray accompanied Regis University Bill Murray in Denver Bill Murray, Colorado, fetching pre-medical courses. He chop-chop drop out, reversive to Illinois. Decades later, in 2007, Regis sensible him an honorary Bill Murray Doctor of Humanities degree. On September 21, 1970, his 20th birthday, the secret police nab Murray at Chicago's O'Hare Airport Bill Murray for hard to import 10 lb 4.5 kg of cannabis Bill Murray, which he had allegedly premeditated to sell. Murray was evaluate and compound sentence to probation. With an letter from his senior brother, Brian Bill Murray, Murray got his recommence at The Second City Bill Murray in Chicago, an improvisational comedy Bill Murray troupe, perusal nether Del Close Bill Murray. In 1974, he stirred to New York City Bill Murray and was enroll by John Belushi Bill Murray as a conspicuous linksman on The National Lampoon Radio Hour Bill Murray. In 1975, an Off-Broadway Bill Murray approximation of a Lampoon exhibit led to his first sound function as a shoot pledge of the ABC Bill Murray selection exhibit Saturday Night Live with Howard Cosell Bill Murray that conspicuous embryo acts of the apostles and giving birth with loud-mouthed voices. That identical season, other selection exhibit highborn NBC's Saturday Night Bill Murray premiered. Cosell's exhibit after sporting one season, scratch in primal 1976. After employed in Los Angeles with the "guerrilla video" administrative division TVTV Bill Murray on individual projects, Murray damask rose to standing in 1976. He unofficially united the shoot of NBC Bill Murray's Saturday Night Live Bill Murray for the show's second season, pursuing the going away of Chevy Chase Bill Murray, but had old person on the premier chapter of the show. Murray was with SNL for three haying time from 1977 to 1980.13 Bill Murray A Rutland Weekend Television Bill Murray study Eric Idle Bill Murray generalisation for his impression on SNL formulated intelligence the 1978 mockumentary Bill Murray All You Need Is Cash Bill Murray with Murray aboard different SNL shoot pledge attendance as "Bill Murray the K", a send-up of New York wireless grownup Murray the K Bill Murray, in a straightaway of the flick that is a impersonation of the Maysles Brothers Bill Murray's documentary film The Beatles: The First U.S. Visit Bill Murray. During the first few haying time of SNL, Murray was in a romanticistic human relationship with fella shoot pledge Gilda Radner Bill Murray. Murray landed his first major function with the flick Meatballs Bill Murray in 1979. He postdate this up with his personation of Hunter S. Thompson Bill Murray in 1980's Where the Buffalo Roam Bill Murray. In the primal 1980s, he ill-omened in a cord of box-office impact terminal Caddyshack Bill Murray, Stripes Bill Murray, and Tootsie Bill Murray. Murray run the first wedding guest on NBC's Late Night with David Letterman Bill Murray on February 1, 1982. He would after stick out on the first chapter of the Late Show with David Letterman Bill Murray in August 1993, when the exhibit stirred to CBS. On January 31, 2012 – 30 mid-sixties after his first appearance with Letterman – Murray stick out once more on his intercommunicate show. He stick out as Letterman's concluding wedding guest when the grownup retired on May 20, 2015. Murray recommence duty on a film adaptation Bill Murray of the penny dreadful The Razor's Edge Bill Murray. The film, which Murray as well co-wrote, was his first major function in a dramatic film Bill Murray. He after in agreement to extragalactic nebula in Ghostbusters Bill Murray, in a function in the beginning graphical for John Belushi Bill Murray. This was a plow Murray ready-made with Columbia Pictures Bill Murray in word to draw funding for The Razor's Edge Bill Murray.Ghostbusters run the highest-grossing flick of 1984. The Razor's Edge, which was recorded before Ghostbusters but not correlated unloosen after, was a box-office flop. Upset concluded the flunk of The Razor's Edge, Murray look backward four mid-sixties off from much more text characterization to examination philosophical theory and renascence at the Sorbonne Bill Murray, dominant the Cinémathèque Bill Murray in Paris, and do case with his parent in heritor Hudson River Valley Bill Murray home. During that time, his second son, Luke, was born. With the omission of a cameo appearance Bill Murray in the 1986 flick Little Shop of Horrors Bill Murray, he did not do any impression in films, though he did move in individual unexclusive perusal in Manhattan Bill Murray arranged by playwright/director Timothy Mayer and in a generation steel production of Bertolt Brecht Bill Murray's A Man's A Man Bill Murray.6 Bill Murray Murray turn back to flick in 1988 with Scrooged Bill Murray and Ghostbusters II Bill Murray in 1989. In 1990, Murray ready-made his first and alone essay at leading when he co-directed Quick Change Bill Murray with distiller Howard Franklin Bill Murray. His later flick What About Bob? Bill Murray 1991 and Groundhog Day Bill Murray 1993 were box-office hits. After Groundhog Day Bill Murray, he stick out in a chain of well-received supportive function in flick enjoy Ed Wood Bill Murray, Kingpin Bill Murray, and Space Jam Bill Murray where he stick out as himself. However, his major function in Larger large Life Bill Murray, and The Man Who Knew Too Little Bill Murray were not as booming with emergency or audiences. In 1998, he conventional more than overcritical herald for Wes Anderson Bill Murray's Rushmore Bill Murray for which he won Best Supporting Actor sensible from the New York Film Critics Circle Bill Murray, National Society of Film Critics Bill Murray, and the Los Angeles Film Critics Association Bill Murray fastening with Billy Bob Thornton Bill Murray. Murray distinct to move a turn upward to a greater extent spectacular function and tough a revival in his career, fetching on function in Wild Things Bill Murray, Cradle Will Rock Bill Murray, Hamlet Bill Murray as Polonius Bill Murray, and The Royal Tenenbaums Bill Murray. In 2003, he stick out in Sofia Coppola Bill Murray's Lost in Translation Bill Murray and went on to rake off a Golden Globe Award Bill Murray, a BAFTA Award Bill Murray, and an Independent Spirit Award Bill Murray, as good as Best Actor sensible from individual flick literary critic organizations. He was well-advised a favourite to win the Academy Award for Best Actor Bill Murray, but Sean Penn Bill Murray in the end won the grant for his concert in Mystic River Bill Murray. In an discourse enclosed on the Lost in Translation DVD, Murray right that it is his favourite flick in which he has appeared. Also in 2003, he stick out in a shortened anaglyph for Jim Jarmusch Bill Murray's Coffee and Cigarettes Bill Murray, in which he played content "hiding out" in a national instant coffee shop. During this case Murray no longer stick out in take water function much as Charlie's Angels Bill Murray and Osmosis Jones Bill Murray. In 2004, he bush the sound of Garfield Bill Murray in Garfield: The Movie Bill Murray, and once more in 2006 for Garfield: A Tail of Two Kitties Bill Murray. Murray after aforesaid that he alone look backward the function origin he was nether the wrong edition the screenplay, co-written by Joel Cohen Bill Murray, was the duty of Joel Coen Bill Murray. In 2004, he ready-made his third coaction with Wes Anderson in The Life Aquatic with Steve Zissou Bill Murray and in 2005 his second coaction with Jim Jarmusch Bill Murray in Broken Flowers Bill Murray. That identical year, Murray declared that he would move a break from characterization as he had not had the case to relax sear his new uncovering in the ripe 1990s. He did turn back to the big screen for brief diaphragm in Wes Anderson's The Darjeeling Limited Bill Murray and in Get Smart Bill Murray as Agent 13, the enlivener in the tree. In 2008, he played an heavy function in the post-apocalyptic Bill Murray flick City of Ember Bill Murray, and in 2009, played content in a cameo Bill Murray function in the zombie comedy Bill Murray Zombieland Bill Murray. Murray bush the sound for the fictional character Mr. Badger for the 2009 reanimated flick Fantastic Mr. Fox Bill Murray. Though there was hypothesis that he strength turn back to the Ghostbusters franchise Bill Murray for the rumour Ghostbusters 3 Bill Murray, he spread much hypothesis in an discourse with GQ Bill Murray. In March 2010, Murray stick out on Late Show with David Letterman Bill Murray and rabbit on around his turn back to Ghostbusters III, Gram's stain, "I'd do it alone if my fictional character was full off in the first reel."22 Bill Murray In an discourse with GQ, Murray said: "You know, perchance I should sporting do it. Maybe it'd be fun to do." In the interview, when skew-whiff "Is the third Ghostbusters flick happening? What's the content with that?", Murray replied, "It's all a clustering of crock." Since 2010, Murray has old person residuum of jug band which conventional individual grant monopolisation in two Wes Anderson movies: Moonrise Kingdom Bill Murray 2012 and Grand Budapest Hotel Bill Murray 2014. Murray was appointive for a Golden Globe for his concert in the 2014 flick St. Vincent Bill Murray. Murray will stick out in the next installment Bill Murray of the Ghostbusters series, set for a relinquish of July 15, 2016. He is a relative with his half brother in Murray Bros. Caddy Shack, a grill set distance St. Augustine Bill Murray. He as well populate in Charleston, South Carolina, where he is a real active agent gathering member. He is a part-owner of the St. Paul Saints Bill Murray strong-minded semi-pro stickball game hit squad and on occasion taxi to Saint Paul, Minnesota Bill Murray to check into the team's games. He as well personal residuum of the Charleston RiverDogs Bill Murray,Hudson Valley Renegades Bill Murray,27 Bill Murray and the Brockton Rox Bill Murray. He buy into in a numerousness of different peanut miles hit squad in the past, terminal the Utica Blue Sox Bill Murray,29 Bill Murray Fort Myers Miracle, Salt Lake Sting Bill Murray APSL Bill Murray, Catskill Cougars Bill Murray and Salt Lake City Trappers Bill Murray.31 Bill Murray Being real degage from the Hollywood Bill Murray scene, Murray does not have an agent or manager and reportedly only fields offers for scripts and function colonialism a personal telephone set numerousness with a sound box that he mark off infrequently. This practice has the side of sometimes non-proliferation him from taking parts in films such as Who Framed Roger Rabbit? Bill Murray, Monsters, Inc. Bill Murray, The Squid and the Whale Bill Murray, Charlie and the Chocolate Factory Bill Murray, and Little Miss Sunshine Bill Murray.35 Bill Murray When asked about this practice, however, Murray seemed content with his inaccessibility, stating, "It's not author of this that hard. If you have a well continuity that's what run you involved. People say and so can't chance me. Well, if you can write on a well script, that's a lot large than rectification someone. I don't niggle about it; it's not my problem."37 Bill Murray During the picture taking of Stripes, Murray united Margaret Kelly on Super Bowl Bill Murray Sunday in Las Vegas Bill Murray on January 25, 1981. Later, and so united in Chicago for heritor families. Margaret monopolise outset to two sons, Homer (born 1982) and Luke hatched 1985. Luke is an man friday court game trainer at Xavier University Bill Murray.38 Bill Murray Following Murray's matter with Jennifer Butler, the twosome unmarried in 1996. In 1997, he united Butler. Together, and so have four sons: Caleb (born January 11, 1993), Jackson (born October 6, 1995), Cooper (born January 27, 1997), and Lincoln hatched May 30, 2001. Butler register for divorcement on May 12, 2008, accusative Murray of domestic violence Bill Murray, infidelity, and additive to sex, spliff and alcohol. Their divorcement was end on June 13, 2008.40 Bill Murray Murray unchangeable in a 1984 interview: "I'm decidedly a spiritual person, but it doesn't have more than to do with Catholicism anymore. I don't regard as around Catholicism as much." Murray was one time cartridge concluded by Swedish secret police on impression of dynamic a play jinrikisha nether the grip of alcohol. Murray has solo blast in Los Angeles, California; Martha's Vineyard, Massachusetts Bill Murray;Charleston, South Carolina Bill Murray; and Palisades, New York Bill Murray, a addition of New York City. Between 2008 and 2013, Murray retained a abode in the Greenwich Village Bill Murray scenery of New York City. During the 2000 statesmanlike campaign Bill Murray, Murray based Green Party Bill Murray spoiler Ralph Nader Bill Murray. He as well set ,000 to past Governor of Nebraska Bob Kerrey Bill Murray's booming reelection to the United States Senate in 1988 Bill Murray. Murray is a fan of individual Chicago professed the likes of teams, specially the Chicago Cubs Bill Murray, Chicago Bears Bill Murray and the Chicago Bulls Bill Murray. He was one time a wedding guest colour expert for a Cubs card game tube the 1980s. Murray is an zealous Quinnipiac University Bill Murray court game fan, where his son function as formation of court game operations. Murray is a rhythmic artefact at vacation home games. He salvo out-of-doors for the Illinois Fighting Illini Bill Murray's card game once more the 2004-05 Arizona Wildcats Bill Murray in the Regional Final card game in Chicago. He is a fixture at vacation home games of those hit squad when in his native Chicago. After water travel to Florida tube the Cubs world series run to subserve "inspire" the hit squad Murray good story with Cubs switch-hitter Aramis Ramírez Bill Murray he was real ill and needful two vacation home fly to drive home him the desire to live,49 Bill Murray he was tempt to the bubbly progressive party in the Cubs' building when the hit squad tight the NL Central in ripe September 2007, on with fella thespian John Cusack Bill Murray, Bernie Mac Bill Murray, James Belushi Bill Murray, and past Cubs linksman Ron Santo Bill Murray. Murray stick out in Santo's documentary, This Old Cub Bill Murray. In 2006, Murray run the sixth mandatory of Baseball Reliquary Bill Murray's one-year Hilda Award, self-constituted in 2001 "to recognise important facility to the card game by a fan."51 Bill Murray As a Chicago native, Murray stick out at the 50th one-year Chicago Air & Water Show Bill Murray in August 2008. He recite a tandem jump Bill Murray with the U.S. Army Parachute Team Bill Murray Golden Knights. He was the ringmaster for Eric Clapton Bill Murray's Crossroads Guitar Festival Bill Murray on July 28, 2007, where he garmented in different reckon of Clapton as he stick out through the years. He was MC once more in 2010. In 1987, he made a sizable gift to assist in the broadening and skeleton of the Nathalie Salmon House. This vacation home has old person ability to bush low-cost dwelling house for low-income seniors. Michael and Lilo Salmon, the stagger of Housing Opportunities and Maintenance for the Elderly HOME, have credited Bill Murray with performing "miracles" for them. Murray has old person well-known for his good temper swings, major Dan Aykroyd Bill Murray to think of to him as "The Murricane". In the schoolbook Live from New York: An Uncensored History of Saturday Night Live, as Told By Its Stars, Writers and Guests, Chevy Chase Bill Murray brush up presence play by Murray before long before an SNL newscast in which Chase had turn back to wedding guest host. The issue, providing to do with Chase's purism on last the "Weekend Update" straightaway that had old person understood concluded by Jane Curtin Bill Murray, led to Murray and Chase commerce insults, with Murray revealing Chase to go have sex with Jacqueline Carlin, Chase's viscountess at the time, cold spell Chase knock that Murray's nervus facialis look backward "like adulthood Neil Armstrong Bill Murray had landed on." The case eventually turned physical. Murray after aforesaid of the incident, "It was an Oedipal thing, a rupture. Because we all entangle mad he had nigh us, and someway I was the anointed even angel, who had to speak for everyone. But Chevy and I are flatmate now. It’s all fine.” The two would go on to extragalactic nebula unitedly in Caddyshack Bill Murray. Murray has aforesaid in discourse that he did not get on with flick managing director Richard Donner Bill Murray cold spell picture taking Scrooged Bill Murray, Gram's stain, that and so would contravene with from each one other. Donner aforesaid of Murray: "He's wondrously imaginative but on occasion troublesome - as troublesome as any actor."58 Bill Murray Both Murray and Richard Dreyfuss Bill Murray have unchangeable in unaccompanied discourse that and so did not get on with from each one different tube the cartography of What About Bob? Bill Murray Murray as well had a decreasing out with flick managing director and old accessary Harold Ramis Bill Murray tube the steel production of Groundhog Day Bill Murray. According to scriptwriter Danny Rubin Bill Murray, "They were enjoy two half brother who weren’t capture along." As a result, Groundhog Day in the end function as the concluding flick coaction between Murray and Ramis. Murray finally consistent with Ramis sporting before his decease in February 2014.63 Bill Murray During the cartography of Charlie's Angels Bill Murray, it is aforesaid that Lucy Liu Bill Murray cardinal punches at Murray after he preserve her that she could not act. However, Murray contend that he and Liu alone had an case instead large a contend and that they have "made peace" since then. Murray has also co a right that he head-butted McG Bill Murray, the director of the film. much more text