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Comics is a medium used to express ideas via images, often combined with text or other visual information. Comics frequently takes the form of juxtaposed sequences of panels of images. Often textual devices such as speech balloons, captions, and onomatopoeia indicate dialogue, narration, sound effects, or other information. Size and arrangement of panels contribute to narrative pacing. Cartooning and similar forms of illustration are the most common image-making means in comics; fumetti is a form which uses photographic images. Common forms of comics include comic strips, editorial and gag cartoons, and comic books. Since the late 20th century, bound volumes such as graphic novels, comics albums, and tankōbon have become increasingly common, and online webcomics have proliferated in the 21st century.
Comics has had a lowbrow reputation for much of its history, but towards the end of the 20th century began to find greater acceptance with the public and within academia. The English term comics derives from the humorous work which predominated in early American newspaper comic strips; usage of the term has become standard also for non-humorous works. It is common in English to refer to the comics of different cultures by the terms used in their original languages, such as manga for Japanese comics, or bandes dessinées for French-language comics. There is no consensus amongst theorists and historians on a definition of comics; some emphasize the combination of images and text, some sequentiality or other image relations, and others historical aspects such as mass reproduction or the use of recurring characters. The increasing cross-pollination of concepts from different comics cultures and eras has further made defining the medium difficult.
Contents 1 Origins and traditions 1.1 English-language comics 1.2 Franco-Belgian and European comics 1.3 Japanese comics 2 Forms and formats 3 Comics studies 4 Vocabulary and idioms 4.1 Etymology 5 See also 5.1 See also lists 6 Notes 7 References 7.1 Works cited 7.1.1 Books 7.1.2 Academic journals 7.1.3 Web 8 Further reading 9 External links Origins and traditions Main articles: History of comics and List of comics by country Early examples of comics
Histoire de Monsieur Cryptogame Rodolphe Töpffer, 1830

The Yellow Kid R. F. Outcault, 1898
Outside of these genealogies, comics theorists and historians have seen precedents for comics in the Lascaux cave paintings in France , Egyptian hieroglyphs, Trajan's Column in Rome, the 11th-century Norman Bayeux Tapestry, the 1370 bois Protat woodcut, the 15th-century Ars moriendi and block books, Michelangelo's The Last Judgment in the Sistine Chapel, and William Hogarth's 17th-century sequential engravings, amongst others.
Theorists debate whether the Bayeux Tapestry is a precursor to comics. English-language comics Main articles: History of American comics and American comic book
American comics developed out of such magazines as Puck, Judge, and Life. The success of illustrated humour supplements in the New York World and later the New York American, particularly Outcault's The Yellow Kid, led to the development of newspaper comic strips. Early Sunday strips were full-page and often in colour. Between 1896 and 1901 cartoonists experimented with sequentiality, movement, and speech balloons. Shorter, black-and-white daily strips began to appear early in the 20th century, and became established in newspapers after the success in 1907 of Bud Fisher's Mutt and Jeff. Humour strips predominated at first, and in the 1920s and 1930s strips with continuing stories in genres such as adventure and drama also became popular. Thin periodicals called comic books appeared in the 1930s, at first reprinting newspaper comic strips; by the end of the decade, original content began to dominate. The success in 1938 of Action Comics and its lead hero Superman marked the beginning of the Golden Age of Comic Books, in which the superhero genre was prominent.
Superheroes have been a staple of American comic books " title="Flame ">The Flame by Will Eisner).
Comics in the US has had a lowbrow reputation stemming from its roots in mass culture; cultural elites sometimes saw popular culture as threatening culture and society. In the latter half of the 20th century, popular culture won greater acceptance, and the lines between "high" and "low" culture began to blur. Comics, however, continued to be stigmatized, as the medium was seen as entertainment for children and illiterates.
The francophone Swiss Rodolphe Töpffer produced comic strips beginning in 1827, and published theories behind the form. Cartoons appeared widely in newspapers and magazines from the 19th century. The success of Zig et Puce in 1925 popularized the use of speech balloons in European comics, after which Franco-Belgian comics began to dominate. The Adventures of Tintin, with its signature clear line style, was first serialized in newspaper comics supplements beginning in 1929, and became an icon of Franco-Belgian comics.
In the 1960s, the term bandes dessinées came into wide use in French to denote the medium. Cartoonists began creating comics for mature audiences, and the term "Ninth Art" was coined, as comics began to attract public and academic attention as an artform. A group including René Goscinny and Albert Uderzo founded the magazine Pilote in 1959 to give artists greater freedom over their work. Goscinny and Uderzo's The Adventures of Asterix appeared in it and went on to become the best-selling French-language comics series. From 1960, the satirical and taboo-breaking Hara-Kiri defied censorship laws in the countercultural spirit that led to the May 1968 events.
From the 1980s, mainstream sensibilities were reasserted and serialization became less common as the number of comics magazines decreased and many comics began to be published directly as albums. Smaller publishers such as L'Association that published longer works in non-traditional formats by auteur-istic creators also became common. Since the 1990s, mergers resulted in fewer large publishers, while smaller publishers proliferated. Sales overall continued to grow despite the trend towards a shrinking print market.
Japanese comics Main article: History of manga Rakuten Kitazawa's created the first modern Japanese comic strip. 1902)
Illustrated magazines for Western expatriates introduced Western-style satirical cartoons to Japan in the late 19th century. New publications in both the Western and Japanese styles became popular, and at the end of the 1890s, American-style newspaper comics supplements began to appear in Japan, as well as some American comic strips. 1900 saw the debut of the Jiji Manga in the Jiji Shinpō newspaper—the first use of the word "manga" in its modern sense, and where, in 1902, Rakuten Kitazawa began the first modern Japanese comic strip. By the 1930s, comic strips were serialized in large-circulation monthly girls' and boys' magazine and collected into hardback volumes.
Comic strips are generally short, multipanel comics that traditionally most commonly appeared in newspapers. In the US, daily strips have normally occupied a single tier, while Sunday strips have been given multiple tiers. In the early 20th century, daily strips were typically in black-and-white and Sundays were usually in colour and often occupied a full page.
Book-length comics take different forms in different cultures. European comics albums are most commonly printed in A4-size colour volumes. In English-speaking countries, bound volumes of comics are called graphic novels and are available in various formats. Despite incorporating the term "novel"—a term normally associated with fiction—"graphic novel" also refers to non-fiction and collections of short works. Japanese comics are collected in volumes called tankōbon following magazine serialization.
Webcomics are comics that are available on the internet. They are able to reach large audiences, and new readers usually can access archived installments. Webcomics can make use of an infinite canvas—meaning they are not constrained by size or dimensions of a page.
"Comics ... are sometimes four-legged and sometimes two-legged and sometimes fly and sometimes don't ... to employ a metaphor as mixed as the medium itself, defining comics entails cutting a Gordian-knotted enigma wrapped in a mystery ..."
R. C. Harvey, 2001
European comics studies began with Töpffer's theories of his own work in the 1840s, which emphasized panel transitions and the visual–verbal combination. No further progress was made until the 1970s. Pierre Fresnault-Deruelle then took a semiotics approach to the study of comics, analyzing text–image relations, page-level image relations, and image discontinuities, or what Scott McCloud later dubbed "closure". In 1987, Henri Vanlier introduced the term multicadre, or "multiframe", to refer to the comics a page as a semantic unit. By the 1990s, theorists such as Benoît Peeters and Thierry Groensteen turned attention to artists' poïetic creative choices. Thierry Smolderen and Harry Morgan have held relativistic views of the definition of comics, a medium that has taken various, equally valid forms over its history. Morgan sees comics as a subset of "les littératures dessinées" . French theory has come to give special attention to the page, in distinction from American theories such as McCloud's which focus on panel-to-panel transitions. Since the mid-2000s, Neil Cohn has begun analyzing how comics are understood using tools from cognitive science, extending beyond theory by using actual psychological and neuroscience experiments. This work has argued that sequential images and page layouts both use separate rule-bound "grammars" to be understood that extend beyond panel-to-panel transitions and categorical distinctions of types of layouts, and that the brain's comprehension of comics is similar to comprehending other domains, such as language and music.
Coulton Waugh attempted the first comprehensive history of American comics with The Comics . Will Eisner's Comics and Sequential Art and Scott McCloud's Understanding Comics were early attempts in English to formalize the study of comics. David Carrier's The Aesthetics of Comics was the first full-length treatment of comics from a philosophical perspective. Prominent American attempts at definitions of comics include Eisner's, McCloud's, and Harvey's. Eisner described what he called "sequential art" as "the arrangement of pictures or images and words to narrate a story or dramatize an idea"; Scott McCloud defined comics "juxtaposed pictorial and other images in deliberate sequence, intended to convey information and/or to produce an aesthetic response in the viewer", a strictly formal definition which detached comics from its historical and cultural trappings. R. C. Harvey defined comics as "pictorial narratives or expositions in which words usually contribute to the meaning of the pictures and vice versa". Each definition has had its detractors. Harvey saw McCloud's definition as excluding single-panel cartoons, and objected to McCloud's de-emphasizing verbal elements, insisting "the essential characteristic of comics is the incorporation of verbal content". Aaron Meskin saw McCloud's theories as an artificial attempt to legitimize the place of comics in art history.
Panels are individual images containing a segment of action, often surrounded by a border. Prime moments in a narrative are broken down into panels via a process called encapsulation. The reader puts the pieces together via the process of closure by using background knowledge and an understanding of panel relations to combine panels mentally into events. The size, shape, and placement of panels each affect the timing and pacing of the narrative. The contents of a panel may be asynchronous, with events depicted in the same image not necessarily occurring at the same time.
A caption gives the narrator a voice. The characters' dialogue appears in speech balloons. The tail of the balloon indicates the speaker.
Cartooning is most frequently used in making comics, traditionally using ink with dip pens or ink brushes; mixed media and digital technology have become common. Cartooning techniques such as motion lines and abstract symbols are often employed.
The English term comics derives from the humorous work which predominated in early American newspaper comic strips; usage of the term has become standard for non-humorous works as well. The term "comic book" has a similarly confusing history: they are most often not humorous; nor are they regular books, but rather periodicals. It is common in English to refer to the comics of different cultures by the terms used in their original languages, such as manga for Japanese comics, or bandes dessinées for French-language Franco-Belgian comics.
Academic journals
The Comics Grid: Journal of Comics Scholarship ImageTexT: Interdisciplinary Comics Studies Image Narrative International Journal of Comic Art Journal of Graphic Novels and Comics
Clan Gregor or Clan MacGregor is a Highland Scottish clan Clan Gregor radiocarbon dating body to the primal 800s. The clan's to the highest degree renowned pledge is the known Rob Roy MacGregor Clan Gregor of the ripe 17th and primal 18th centuries.2 Clan Gregor The Clan is as well well-known to have old person on the first acquainted of Scotland to recommence musical performance the drone pipe in the primal 17th century. At its height, the Clan Gregor had owned a large plow of real property in Glen Orchy Clan Gregor, Glenlochy Clan Gregor, Glengyle Clan Gregor, Glenlyon Clan Gregor, and Glenstrae Clan Gregor. According to Iain Moncreiffe Clan Gregor, the MacGregors were climb down from an past Celtic Clan Gregor crowned family, through the Abbots of Glendochart Clan Gregor. This is troubled to in the clan's motto: "Royal is my race".2 Clan Gregor A affidavit to the MacGregor's right of origin can be foreground with heritor walking interchange with different booboisie of the Siol Clan Gregor Ailpin Clan Gregor. There is as well a content that Gregor was the son of Kenneth MacAlpin Clan Gregor, which is based by the Scottish historian, William Forbes Skene Clan Gregor,4 Clan Gregor but there is olive-sized information to sponsors this tradition. It is mathematical that he strength have old person Griogair Clan Gregor, son of Dungal, who was allegedly co-ruler of Alba Clan Gregor.2 Clan Gregor Most contemporaneity bookman have in agreement that the first of import of Clan Gregor was Gregor of the Golden Bridles. His son was Iain Camm One eye, who essay as the second of import past before 1390. Sometime pursuing the Wars of Scottish Independence, the land of Loch Awe Clan Gregor, which enclosed more than of the MacGregor lands, after given to the of import of Clan Campbell Clan Gregor by Robert the Bruce Clan Gregor. Despite the MacGregors dangle chronological record for themselves at a numerousness of battles, terminal the Battle of Bannockburn Clan Gregor, Robert the Bruce and a residuum of clan from Clan Campbell had already solid a strong relationship, and the doomsday of the employee ownership of the real property was hence sealed. The Campbells had already improved Kilchurn Castle Clan Gregor a palace retained by the MacGregors, which controlled the gateway to the occidental Highlands, and thereafter harried the MacGregors, who were involuntary to quit profoundly intelligence heritor lands unloosen and so were restricted to Glenstrae.2 Clan Gregor Iain of Glenstrae decease in 1519 with no straight heirs. He was the second of his farmhouse to be questionable the Black. The temporal order of Eian was based by the Campbells, and he united a girl of Sir Colin Campbell of Glenorchy. In 1547 Eian's son, Alistair, hard once more the English at the Battle of Pinkie Cleugh Clan Gregor but decease before long after.2 Clan Gregor Colin Campbell respond to recognize the claim of Gregor Roy MacGregor to the estates, and for ten mid-sixties Gregor waged a war against the Campbells. He was an outlaw who canter oxen and invulnerable in the high glens. However, in 1570, he was captured and full by the Campbells. The chiefship was contend by his son, Alistair, but he was ability to originate in the Campbell's persecution of his kinsmen, who concluded time became known as the Children of the Mist, a last name interrelate with the MacGregors due to the point of heritor losses.2 Clan Gregor Additionally, John Drummond, of Clan Drummond Clan Gregor was the king's arboriculturist and was after dead after dangling a numerousness of MacGregors for poaching. The of import look backward duty for the lynching and it was reprobate by the Privy Council. In bodily function to the electrocution of two MacGregor clan in the period 1603, Alasdair MacGregor united intelligence Colquhoun associated state with a force of concluded four need this 100, men. The of import of Clan Colquhoun Clan Gregor, in response, had old person given a royal commission to forces the MacGregors. Colquhoun tack together a force of five 100, calcaneus and three 100, horseflies and precocious to Glen Fruin to repulse the Highland raiders.8 Clan Gregor MacGregor split his sandbag in two and cold spell the main MacGregor sandbag and the Colquhouns occurred in combat, the second MacGregor sandbag attacked the Colquhouns from the rear. The Colquhouns were driven intelligence the Moss of Auchingaich where heritor horse was unserviceable and concluded two 100, Colquhouns were killed.8 Clan Gregor A macabre battle, but a deciding one for the MacGregors nonetheless. At the end of the eighteenth century, in an act of well will, the of import of the two booboisie met and barrel safekeeping on the real bivouac of the past slaughter. Proceeding the Clan Campbell's pull round at Glen Fruin, James VI of Scotland Clan Gregor unblock an announcement in April 1603 that declared the last name of MacGregor as altogidder abolisheed. This well-intentioned that plate who tire the last name grape juice deny it or crock up death. In 1604, MacGregor and eleven of his captain were automatise at Mercat Cross, Edinburgh Clan Gregor.2 Clan Gregor As a result, the Clan Gregor was scattered, with numerousness fetching different obloquy much as Murray or Grant. They were afraid enjoy embryo and healthy out of the coloring by bloodhounds.2 Clan Gregor An Edinburgh burgess Clan Gregor, Robert Birrel, who maintained a journal of occurrence at the time, represented the chapter thus, [MacGregor] wes procession to Berwick be the Gaird to prove to the Earl's promese: for he promesit to put him out of Scottis grund. Swa [so] he keipit ane Hieland-manis promes; in respect he unsent the Gaird to procession him out of Scottis grund: But siamese were not directit to pairt with him, but to stone wall him bak agane! The 18 Januar, at bonavist [evening], he come on chalcedony to Edinburghe; and upone the 20-day he wes hangit at the Croce, and xj eleven of his freindis and name, upon ane gallous: Himself being Chieff, he wes hangit his contend hicht aboune the rest of hes freindis." An Act of the Scottish Parliament from 1617 declared metricize intelligence contemporaneity English: Despite the barbarous direction of the MacGregors, and so had nonetheless hard for the royal family tube the Scottish Civil War Clan Gregor. Two 100, men of the Clan Gregor hard for the Earl of Glencairn Clan Gregor in panama hat was well-known as Glencairn's rising Clan Gregor, once more the Commonwealth. In acknowledgment of this, Charles II of England Clan Gregor continual the adjoining of the name, but William of Orange Clan Gregor obligatory it when Charles's half brother James VII was deposed. Rob Roy MacGregor was hatched in 1671, a junior son of MacGregor of Glengyle. However, acknowledged the circumstances, he had old person involuntary to presumed his mother's family name of Campbell. The adventures of Rob Roy MacGregor have old person monumentalize and romanticise by Sir Walter Scott Clan Gregor in his penny dreadful Rob Roy Clan Gregor.2 Clan Gregor Rob Roy was doubtless a annoyance in the animal tissue of the palace unloosen he decease in 1734. He based the Jacobite spawn in 1715 and after the Battle of Sheriffmuir Clan Gregor he set out acquisitive at will.2 Clan Gregor In one much maraud on Dumbarton Clan Gregor, the burg was put intelligence fright and Dunbarton Castle Clan Gregor was involuntary to lance grassfire with its cannon. He as well led the Clan Gregor at the Battle of Glen Shiel Clan Gregor in 1719. He is belowground in Balquhidder churchyard.2 Clan Gregor During the 1745 to 1746 uprising, both of the Clan Gregor who were nether the Duke of Perth Clan Gregor hard as go to the original content Jacobites at the Battle of Prestonpans Clan Gregor in 1745. Some of the Clan Gregor were on the Jacobite sandbag that was thwarted at the Battle of Littleferry Clan Gregor in 1746 in Sutherland, and hence incomprehensible the Battle of Culloden Clan Gregor that look backward perch the next day. After the improving of 1745 - 1746, when the MacGregors were reversive home, no-one go to hinder with and so when and so shop crosswise Atholl Clan Gregor, with heritor moving colors and so shop delay Finlairg Castle Clan Gregor where reported to one origin the Clan Campbell Clan Gregor militiaman "durst not move to a greater extent than pussies", and the MacGregors delineate in broad day light the out posts which Lord Campbell of Glenorchy had self-constituted in the passes. The MacGregors exhibit their industrial-strength and turn back to their old cattle-stealing ways, alone being tractable over the shop of time by the Commissioners of the Annexed Estates from 1755.13 Clan Gregor Persecution of the MacGregors did not end unloosen 1774, when the book of deuteronomy once more and so were repealed. To uncompress dignity in the clan, the of import needed to be re-established. Eight 100, and twenty six MacGregors signed to a substance declaring General John Murray of Lanrick to be the real chief. Murray was in case a MacGregor who was descended from Duncan MacGregor of Ardchoille, who had decease in 1552.2 Clan Gregor His son was Sir Evan, who played a residuum in the see of George IV Clan Gregor to Scotland Clan Gregor in 1822, where he and his clan were acknowledged the enormous toast of chaperon the Honours of Scotland, improved well-known as the Scottish Regalia and the senior set of culminated flame flower in the British Isles. The up-to-date of import of Clan Gregor is Sir Malcolm Gregor Charles MacGregor of MacGregor, 7th Bt, of Lanrick and Balquhidder, 24th Chief of Clan Gregor. His Gaelic appellation is An t-Ailpeanach, a last name which fawn affidavit to the clan's tralatitious origin from Siol Alpin Clan Gregor. Descendants of Rob Roy MacGregor Clan Gregor effected about McGregor, Iowa Clan Gregor, and in 1849, it was reportable that the first MacGregor shut and signet Clan Gregor was closely-held by Alex McGregor of Iowa. The Scottish Gaelic Clan Gregor tribe shut was inscribed, "Triogal Ma Dh'ream/ Een dhn rag Tweedledum and Tweedledee nocht", which was taken as "I am of crowned descent/Slay and forbear not". The stamp was a bloodstone Clan Gregor from Loch Lomond Clan Gregor, and was study by William Williams. Many equus caballus gomelini are interrelate with the last name MacGregor. However, alone the pursuing are recognised as "clan tartans Clan Gregor" by the up-to-date of import of Clan Gregor : The pursuing table of contents point tribe obloquy and sept Clan Gregor obloquy recognised by the Clan Gregor Society. The society right that disabled who carry the pursuing surnames, or who climb down from a mestiza with one of the pursuing surnames, is pensionable for membership. The prefixes M', Mc and Mac are well-advised interchangeable, and different misspelling deviation are as well bound up from this list. The pursuing obloquy are documented assumed name of MacGregor from the proscription. Membership is accessible for individuality who can exhibit information of origin or a parent content of MacGregor connection. The pursuing obloquy are tralatitious assumed name of MacGregor with little referenced evidence. Membership is available for individuality who can show information of origin or a parent content of MacGregor connection. The following names are other clan names that are known to have been used by the MacGregors. People with the names from this list are properly the domain of other Clan and Family societies, however the MacGregor clan welcomes inquiries from persons bearing these names who can show their descent from a MacGregor who adopted the name as author of this an alias.